Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Keywords : Diabetes

A case control study on the effect of Diabetes and Hypertension on oral health


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2625-2633
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.274

Diabetes and hypertension causes dysfunction in oral components like salivary glands and oral mucosa.  Patients with poorly controlled glycemia may present reduction of salivary flow rate and as a consequence, an increased risk to develop oral injuries and impairment on velocity and quality of wound healings. . Moreover, presence of hypertension increases the probability of xerostomia (associated or not to salivary flow deficiency) as the number of cardiovascular drug administration increases. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of diabetes and hypertension on oral health. It is a university setting study. 300 patients who reported to a private dental college with diabetes, hypertension and both, 100 in each group were randomly selected. The periodontal status and the radiographs of these patients were collected after reviewing case sheets of patients  and compared with their medical condition using Chi square test and analysed. The results were represented in the form of bar graphs. The age group which was most commonly affected was 51-60 years (37%). Males (53%) were most affected when compared to females (46%). Generalised chronic periodontitis was mostly seen in patients with both diabetes and hypertension (77%) but was not statistically significant (p>0.50). Radiovisiography / Orthopantomogram was mostly taken for patients with diabetes (17%) and for those patients who had generalised chronic periodontitis (24%). Within the limits of the study, periodontal destruction is increased in patients with both diabetes and hypertension, as compared to patients with diabetes alone and hypertension alone.

Association of Tooth Loss in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with And Without Mellitus


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 313-323
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.039

Tooth loss is a negative public health outcome that substantially affects not only the general and oral health status of people, but also their quality of life. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread epidemics experienced worldwide; hence the aim of this study is to find the association of tooth loss in chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study consisted of a sample size of 547 patients of which 270 were diabetic patients and 277 were non diabetic patients and were distributed into two groups. After collection of data, it was tabulated with parameters such as name of the patient, age, gender, systemic condition, type of periodontal disease and tooth loss. The cast sheets of patients were obtained from the patient management software. The data of each patient was obtained and tabulated. The most common missing teeth were found to be upper anteriors and it had a higher prevalence of tooth loss in the non-diabetic group (26.82%) than in the diabetic group (18.43%). Association between tooth loss and systemic conditions was done using Chi square test p value- 0.008 and was found to be statistically significant. Tooth loss was higher in the age group of 61-70 years for the diabetic group and in the age group of 50-60 years for the non-diabetic group. The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease is a well known fact. Therefore oral health education programs should be promoted in patients, which aids in early diagnosis and prevention of severe periodontal diseases.

Assessment of periodontal health among patients with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 28-34
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.004

Periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer are among the most common dental diseases affecting people globally. Periodontitis has been identified as the sixth complication of diabetes, in which diabetic patients are more susceptible to develop periodontal disease thrice as often as non-diabetic patients. The risk of periodontitis increases in people with poorly controlled diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal health among patients with diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted from June 2019-March 2020 among patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 200 patients with diabetes were enrolled. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records and analysis was carried out using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23). Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentage) and inferential statistics (chi-square test) were done.  In the present study, out of 200 diabetic patients, 116 patients had gingivitis and 84 patients had periodontitis. Prevalence of both gingivitis and periodontitis was higher among patients within the age group of 45-54 years. Also, prevalence of both gingivitis and periodontitis was higher in males than females. Association between age and periodontal status was found to be statistically significant with the p value of 0.04. The present study showed the prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis among diabetic patients was 58% and 42% respectively.

Milestones In Diabetes Research


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 112-120
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.012

Diabetes is a lifestyle disease which grows epidemically at an alarming rate. Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow measured how much insulin was in a diabetic’s blood which led to the discovery that some people with diabetes could still make insulin. There is  Type-1 and Type-2 diabetes other than gestational diabetes . Diabetes is a mysterious illness with a wide array of complications. It has become a severe socio-economic burden on the developed and underdeveloped countries. It has been reported that half of the death is due to high blood sugar level. Despite many scientific milestones achieved in providing better healthcare facilities and in the treatment and mitigation of this disease, it still imposes a severe threat in countries with middle and low-level-income groups of population and many patients suffering from diabetes are still unable to achieve desired glycemic level. Recent explorations in drug discovery have opened new avenues in the development of new classes of drugs. Focusing on the emerging trends and advances in the field of diabetes treatment, the review will highlight the recent scientific and technological advancement in the development of newer generations of drugs or regimens over the past few decades.

Prevalence of Diabetes in Completely Edentulous Patients - A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Teaching Hospital Based Study


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1546-1553
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.201

Diabetes is one of the most common systemic conditions seen in middle-aged and elderly people in India. It has severe health and lifestyle complications which have a negative impact on the health of the individual, one of them being poor oral health. Numerous studies have shown the correlation between diabetes and periodontal diseases. However, very few studies show a relation between diabetes and edentulism[partial and complete]. The aim of this study was to find a correlation between diabetes and complete edentulism in a teaching hospital-based study. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using the patient records from June 2019-March 2020 and patients who were diabetic and completely edentulous at the time of the visit at a university dental hospital in Chennai were analyzed. Out of the 62 patients, the age group most commonly associated with complete edentulism was 51-70 years[69.35%] followed by 71+ age groups[17.17%]. The population showed an equal ratio of male to female patients. The most common period of edentulism in the 51-70 age group was 36 months. The same in the 30-50 age group was 3 months and in the 71+ age group, it was 12 months. Only 4.8% of the patients were smokers. The most common group with complete edentulism was found to be males between the age of 50-70 who had no other systemic conditions except for diabetes and had their period of edentulism to be 36 months with a prevalence of 11.2%. The study found a significant association between diabetes and duration of edentulism(p=0.012). The limitations to the study are that other factors which might influence edentulism such as stress and socioeconomic status of the patient were not considered. The results might vary if a larger population with a greater geographic diversity will be studied. This study showed an association between diabetes and complete edentulism