Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Keywords : Hypertension

Correlation between cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis - a retrospective study


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2336-2344
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.244

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial colonization, which results in destruction of the tissues between the tooth surface and gingiva, loss of connective tissue attachment, erosion of alveolar bone, and tooth loss. There is much evidence stating that prevalent periodontitis is associated with increased coronary heart disease risk. Thus there is a need to evaluate the extent to which the strength of this association has been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis. A retrospective study was conducted using the patient records from a private dental college from June 2019 - March 2020. The study population included the case records of cardiovascular disease patients, selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Data was collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 (Microsoft office 10) data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to SPSS IBM (version 20.0). Descriptive statistics and chi square test were employed with a level of significance set at p<0.05. The prevalence of periodontitis among cardiovascular patients was 81.47%. Among patients with CVD, 78.06% of hypertension patients, 3.41% of MI patients and 0.22% patients with other cardiac diseases had periodontitis. Within the limits of this study, there was a significant correlation between CVD and periodontitis (p=0.000), with a higher prevalence among hypertension patients. Patients with periodontitis are at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The systemic inflammatory or immune response to periodontal infection may increase cardiovascular risk. Thus proper oral hygiene practices are important in maintaining overall health.

A case control study on the effect of Diabetes and Hypertension on oral health


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2625-2633
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.274

Diabetes and hypertension causes dysfunction in oral components like salivary glands and oral mucosa.  Patients with poorly controlled glycemia may present reduction of salivary flow rate and as a consequence, an increased risk to develop oral injuries and impairment on velocity and quality of wound healings. . Moreover, presence of hypertension increases the probability of xerostomia (associated or not to salivary flow deficiency) as the number of cardiovascular drug administration increases. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of diabetes and hypertension on oral health. It is a university setting study. 300 patients who reported to a private dental college with diabetes, hypertension and both, 100 in each group were randomly selected. The periodontal status and the radiographs of these patients were collected after reviewing case sheets of patients  and compared with their medical condition using Chi square test and analysed. The results were represented in the form of bar graphs. The age group which was most commonly affected was 51-60 years (37%). Males (53%) were most affected when compared to females (46%). Generalised chronic periodontitis was mostly seen in patients with both diabetes and hypertension (77%) but was not statistically significant (p>0.50). Radiovisiography / Orthopantomogram was mostly taken for patients with diabetes (17%) and for those patients who had generalised chronic periodontitis (24%). Within the limits of the study, periodontal destruction is increased in patients with both diabetes and hypertension, as compared to patients with diabetes alone and hypertension alone.

Prevalence of Diabetes in Completely Edentulous Patients - A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Teaching Hospital Based Study


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 1546-1553
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.201

Diabetes is one of the most common systemic conditions seen in middle-aged and elderly people in India. It has severe health and lifestyle complications which have a negative impact on the health of the individual, one of them being poor oral health. Numerous studies have shown the correlation between diabetes and periodontal diseases. However, very few studies show a relation between diabetes and edentulism[partial and complete]. The aim of this study was to find a correlation between diabetes and complete edentulism in a teaching hospital-based study. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using the patient records from June 2019-March 2020 and patients who were diabetic and completely edentulous at the time of the visit at a university dental hospital in Chennai were analyzed. Out of the 62 patients, the age group most commonly associated with complete edentulism was 51-70 years[69.35%] followed by 71+ age groups[17.17%]. The population showed an equal ratio of male to female patients. The most common period of edentulism in the 51-70 age group was 36 months. The same in the 30-50 age group was 3 months and in the 71+ age group, it was 12 months. Only 4.8% of the patients were smokers. The most common group with complete edentulism was found to be males between the age of 50-70 who had no other systemic conditions except for diabetes and had their period of edentulism to be 36 months with a prevalence of 11.2%. The study found a significant association between diabetes and duration of edentulism(p=0.012). The limitations to the study are that other factors which might influence edentulism such as stress and socioeconomic status of the patient were not considered. The results might vary if a larger population with a greater geographic diversity will be studied. This study showed an association between diabetes and complete edentulism