Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Keywords : Periodontitis


Association of Tooth Loss in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with And Without Mellitus

PAVITHRA H DAVE; BALAJI GANESH S; MAHESH RAMAKRISHNAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 313-323
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.039

Tooth loss is a negative public health outcome that substantially affects not only the general and oral health status of people, but also their quality of life. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread epidemics experienced worldwide; hence the aim of this study is to find the association of tooth loss in chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study consisted of a sample size of 547 patients of which 270 were diabetic patients and 277 were non diabetic patients and were distributed into two groups. After collection of data, it was tabulated with parameters such as name of the patient, age, gender, systemic condition, type of periodontal disease and tooth loss. The cast sheets of patients were obtained from the patient management software. The data of each patient was obtained and tabulated. The most common missing teeth were found to be upper anteriors and it had a higher prevalence of tooth loss in the non-diabetic group (26.82%) than in the diabetic group (18.43%). Association between tooth loss and systemic conditions was done using Chi square test p value- 0.008 and was found to be statistically significant. Tooth loss was higher in the age group of 61-70 years for the diabetic group and in the age group of 50-60 years for the non-diabetic group. The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease is a well known fact. Therefore oral health education programs should be promoted in patients, which aids in early diagnosis and prevention of severe periodontal diseases.

Comparison Of Number Of Teeth Lost In Periodontitis And Dental Caries In Age Group Of 30-60 Years.

RACHEL PAUL; JAIGANESH RAMAMURTHY; DEEPA GURUNATHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 3294-3301
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.336

Tooth loss can have profound effects on the individual< hence the prevention and treatment of the etiology of tooth loss is very important.The aim of the studyis to compare the number of teeth lost due to periodontitis and dental caries in the age group of 30-60 years of age. Data was reviewed and analysis of the data of 110 patients were done. The data collected was from patients visiting the OP department, the data was then tabulated and statistical analysis was done in SPSS statistical analysis by IBM and the results were obtained.  Out of 110 patients that were studied, 54.54% were female subjects and 45.45% were male subjects. The most common reason for extraction was found to be due to dental caries. The overall age group that underwent tooth extraction were 32-48 years with a gender predilection of females.  Awareness programs must be initiated for various oral hygiene maintenance focusing on the prevention and the treatment of oral diseases.

Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases Among Individuals Above 45 Years: A Retrospective Study

GEETHIKA. B; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; MANJARI CHAUDARY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 527-533
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.065

Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation to loss of teeth and supporting structures. The aim of this study was  to assess the periodontal health among individuals above the age of 45 years. This retrospective study was conducted using the case sheets of the patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 242 patients were randomly recruited. Data regarding the patient’s periodontal status were collected from the case records and analysed. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software, Version 23. Among the 242 patients, 29 patients (11.96%) exhibited generalised chronic gingivitis, 32 patients (13.22%) exhibited clinically healthy gingiva and 181 patients (74.79%) exhibited generalised chronic periodontitis. Clinically healthy gingiva was highly prevalent(37.5%) among 45-54 year old patients. Generalised chronic periodontitis(27.1%) and generalised chronic gingivitis(31.0%) was highly prevalent among 65-74 year old patients. The association between age and periodontal status was statistically significant(p=0.016) Clinically healthy gingiva(75%), generalised chronic gingivitis(79.3%) and generalised chronic periodontitis(89.3%) were more prevalent among the males. The association between gender and the periodontal health was statistically not significant(p value=0.604).

Human Genetic Variations Associated with Periodontitis- A Mini Review

NANCY SELVAMARY V; VIJAYASHREE PRIYADHARSINI J; SMILINE GIRIJA AS

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 580-586
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.071

Periodontitis (PD) is a complex, multifactorial disease which involves participation of microbial and host factors. Microbes activate inflammatory response in the host which stimulates the periodontal cells to secrete metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes eventually resulting in the tissue destruction and bone resorption. Numerous experimental reports have gathered information related to the potential biomarkers involved in PD. Genetic component of the host as well as the microorganism has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Human genetic variation is considered to be a susceptibility factor in relation to PD. These variations could make an individual resistant or susceptible to infections caused by the microorganisms. Also, other factors such as food habits, lifestyle, smoking, alcoholism and poor oral hygiene practice can aggravate the disease. The magnitude of the disease PD that a patient develops is due to factors related to the individual’s response to the bacterial colonization. Several inflammatory markers and the genes encoded by them are discussed in the present review. Thus the review provides a general overview of the genes and their proteins in association with different forms of PD.

A case control study on the effect of Diabetes and Hypertension on oral health

VAISHALI.S ,; MANJARI CHAUDHARY; REVATHI DURAISAMY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2625-2633
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.274

Diabetes and hypertension causes dysfunction in oral components like salivary glands and oral mucosa.  Patients with poorly controlled glycemia may present reduction of salivary flow rate and as a consequence, an increased risk to develop oral injuries and impairment on velocity and quality of wound healings. . Moreover, presence of hypertension increases the probability of xerostomia (associated or not to salivary flow deficiency) as the number of cardiovascular drug administration increases. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of diabetes and hypertension on oral health. It is a university setting study. 300 patients who reported to a private dental college with diabetes, hypertension and both, 100 in each group were randomly selected. The periodontal status and the radiographs of these patients were collected after reviewing case sheets of patients  and compared with their medical condition using Chi square test and analysed. The results were represented in the form of bar graphs. The age group which was most commonly affected was 51-60 years (37%). Males (53%) were most affected when compared to females (46%). Generalised chronic periodontitis was mostly seen in patients with both diabetes and hypertension (77%) but was not statistically significant (p>0.50). Radiovisiography / Orthopantomogram was mostly taken for patients with diabetes (17%) and for those patients who had generalised chronic periodontitis (24%). Within the limits of the study, periodontal destruction is increased in patients with both diabetes and hypertension, as compared to patients with diabetes alone and hypertension alone.

Periodontal Health Status Of 8-12 Year School Going Children - A Retrospective Study

ANISHA A MAHTANI; GANESH JEEVANANDAN; RAVINDRAKUMAR JAIN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2672-2679
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.280

This study aimed to evaluate the periodontal health status of 8-12-year-old school going children. A retrospective study was conducted amongst 2736 school going children aged 8-12 years reporting to a dental hospital in Chennai for treatment from June 2019 to March 2020. Digital case records of 2736 children were reviewed and the data was extracted. Data analysis was done using IBM SPSS Software Version 20.0 to run Chi square tests. The results revealed the overall prevalence of gingivitis amongst the 8-12 year old children to be 53.7% with 0.3% having periodontitis and 46% of children with clinically healthy gingiva. The study also found a significant relation between the diagnosis of periodontal health and age of the patients with p<0.001. No relation was established between gender and state of periodontal health.The study found the percentage of gingivitis to be 53.7% and periodontitis to be 0.3% in 8-12-year-old school going children.

Assessment of Gender Based Difference in Occurrence of Periodontal Diseases: A Retrospective Study

PALAK MAYUR SHAH; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; MANJARI CHAUDHARY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 521-526
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.064

Gingivitis is defined as the inflammation of the soft tissues of the oral cavity, without the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition which affects the soft tissues leading to the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. The aim of the study was to assess the gender based difference in the occurrence of periodontal diseases. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 4000 patients were recruited. The study participants were divided into 2 based on gender (Group 1 - 2000 males, Group 2 - 2000 females). Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher among males (31.08%) when compared to females (27.28%). Prevalence of gingivitis was higher in females (22.73%) when compared to males (18.93%). There was a statistically  significant association between the gender and periodontal disease (p<0.05). Also, the prevalence of periodontitis was higher among the age group of 56-65 years (19.38%) and gingivitis was higher among the age group of 15-25 years (19.85%). There was a statistically significant association between age and periodontal disease (p<0.05). The finding of the present study showed that prevalence of periodontitis was higher in males when compared to females.

Age and gender distribution of community periodontal index of treatment needs - a record-based study

LALITHA RANI CHELLAPPA; L. LEELAVATHI; P. JAYASHRI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2324-2335
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.243

Gingivitis and periodontitis are two main periodontal diseases in which gingivitis is reversible and periodontitis is irreversible. Pocket depth and loss of attachment can distinguish gingivitis and  periodontitis. Their distribution with age and gender and association is still a controversy. Aim of the study was to analyse the distribution of community periodontal health and its treatment needs among patients attending a private dental college in Chennai.CPITN  index was used to measure the CPI scores and treatment needs of individual indexed teeth.This study included all CPITN index patient records from 18- 80 years old who visited from August 2019- March 2020 and a  total of 112 records were reviewed. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were used for statistical analysis.Gender distribution of the records showed that among 112 records 72.32% were males and 29.68 % were females. Bleeding (38.24%) was the most prevalent CPI score  among the study population. Improvement of oral hygiene and scaling (44.04%) was commonly found treatment needs. Significant association was found between age and treatment needs of most of the index teeth . There was no significant association found between gender and CPI score or Treatment Needs of the index teeth. In the age group of 18 - 35 years, bleeding was found to be more prevalent; calculus was found to be more prevalent in the age groups 36-50 years and 51-80 years. Improvement of personal oral hygiene and scaling was the most prevalent treatment needs among all the age groups. Calculus was observed more prevalent among males and bleeding was common among females.  Improvement of personal oral hygiene and scaling was the most prevalent  treatment needs among both males and females.

Pattern of tooth mobility in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis

PREETHA PARTHASARATHY; M. JEEVITHA; SREEDEVI DHARMAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2369-2377
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.248

Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that is caused by the bacteria of dental plaque resulting in the progressive destruction of the tissue supporting the teeth, that is gingival, periodontal ligament, cementum and the alveolar bone. The progression of the disease is accelerated by tobacco consumption. The aim of this study is to find the pattern of tooth mobility in smokers and non smokers. This retrospective study was conducted in a Private dental college, chennai. The sample size was 100, with 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. The data was collected from the hospital digital database. It was observed that tooth mobility in smokers was prevalent in the posterior region (16%) (p<0.05) and in the maxilla and both the jaws (11% & 23% respectively). Tooth mobility in smokers was commonly seen in the posterior region of maxilla (10%) and anterior region of mandible (20%) for which the P value was found to be statistically significant (<0.05). For non-smokers, there was an increased tooth mobility observed in the anterior region of the mandible (34%) for which the P value was found to be statistically significant (<0.05). Within the limits of the study, it can be concluded that smoking causes increased periodontal destruction to the surrounding tissues, with tooth mobility and loss commonly observed in the posterior regions of maxilla and posterior region in both the jaws. Thus, Progression of disease can be prevented by early diagnosis and by tobacco cessation programmes.

Association Between Smoking and Oral Lichen Planus in Males - A Retrospective study

PADMAHARISH V; JAIGANESH RAMAMURTHY; DEEPA GURUNATHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 623-632
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.077

Oral lichen planus affects one to two percent of the general adult population and is the most common non‐infectious oral mucosal disease. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of OLP malignant transformation as cigarette smoke contains substances that induce chronic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. The aim of this study was to assess the association between smoking and oral lichen planus in males. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients visiting a private dental college in Chennai from June 2019 - March 2020. The study population included case records of male patients with oral lichen planus, selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Data regarding their smoking habit were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. Among the study population, 43.59% of patients were below 40 years and 56.41% were above 40 years of age. About 53.8% of male patients with oral lichen planus had a smoking habit. Erosive lichen planus was the most common variant followed by the reticular type.Within the limits of the study, there was a significant association between smoking and oral lichen planus in males, with an increased incidence of erosive lichen planus among smokers.

Reasons for extraction of permanent teeth - An institutional study

R. KEERTHANA; M.P. SANTHOSH KUMAR; MANJARI CHAUDHARY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2954-2964
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.303

Cause for tooth extraction had large geographical and cultural differences in different Countries. A decrease in the number of teeth can serve as an indicator of socio-economic and oral hygiene level. A reduction in the number of teeth may result in poor dietary habits and deterioration of quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate the primary reasons for extraction of permanent teeth and to evaluate its association with age, gender among patients treated in Saveetha Dental College and hospital. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, digital case records of all patients reported to saveetha dental college and hospital from June 2019 to March 2020 were reviewed. All adult patients who underwent extraction of teeth were included in the study. Demographic details of patients and the reasons for extraction of the permanent tooth were recorded from digital case records, clinical photographs and radiographs. Retrieved data was analysed using IBM SPSS Software Version 23.0. Descriptive statistics and tests of association for categorical variables by Chi square tests were done and results were obtained. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The common reason for the extraction of permanent teeth was dental caries (34.2%). Tooth extraction was more in the age group 18-35 years (41.2%) and the most common reason was dental caries (41.7%). The association between age and reasons for tooth extraction was statistically significant.(p<0.001).Tooth extraction was more in the males (58.6%) compared to females (41.3%) and the most common reason for extraction in the males was dental caries (31.3%) and in females was dental caries (38.2%). The association between gender and reasons of tooth extraction was statistically significant(p<0.001). The association between age and gender of the patients undergoing extraction of permanent teeth was also statistically significant.(p<0.001). Within the limits of the study, dental caries was the most common reason for the extraction of permanent teeth. Males underwent more extractions than females and the predominant age group undergoing extraction of teeth were 18-35 years. This fact should be kept in mind while planning preventive programs and more emphasis should be given for prevention of dental caries or periodontal disease based on age of the target population.

Correlation between cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis - a retrospective study

PADMAHARISH V; DEEPIKA RAJENDRAN; DEEPA G

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 2336-2344
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.244

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacterial colonization, which results in destruction of the tissues between the tooth surface and gingiva, loss of connective tissue attachment, erosion of alveolar bone, and tooth loss. There is much evidence stating that prevalent periodontitis is associated with increased coronary heart disease risk. Thus there is a need to evaluate the extent to which the strength of this association has been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between cardiovascular diseases and periodontitis. A retrospective study was conducted using the patient records from a private dental college from June 2019 - March 2020. The study population included the case records of cardiovascular disease patients, selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Data was collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Microsoft Excel 2016 (Microsoft office 10) data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to SPSS IBM (version 20.0). Descriptive statistics and chi square test were employed with a level of significance set at p<0.05. The prevalence of periodontitis among cardiovascular patients was 81.47%. Among patients with CVD, 78.06% of hypertension patients, 3.41% of MI patients and 0.22% patients with other cardiac diseases had periodontitis. Within the limits of this study, there was a significant correlation between CVD and periodontitis (p=0.000), with a higher prevalence among hypertension patients. Patients with periodontitis are at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The systemic inflammatory or immune response to periodontal infection may increase cardiovascular risk. Thus proper oral hygiene practices are important in maintaining overall health.

Association Between Trauma from Occlusion and Periodontal Status of Mandibular Anterior Teeth

HARIPRIYA. R; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; NIVETHIGAA. B

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 380-385
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.047

Any occlusal force which goes beyond the adaptive capacity of our periodontium causes injury to periodontal structure, and the resultant trauma is called trauma from occlusion (TFO). Several views have been interpreted as trauma from occlusion as an etiological factor or cofactor for occurrence of periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between trauma from occlusion and mandibular anterior teeth. This retrospective study  was conducted in a private institution in Chennai using the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 100 patients were randomly selected and were categorized into two groups; Group 1 (n=50): patients with TFO and Group 2 (n=50): patients without TFO. Data regarding the presence or absence of clinical attachment loss and mobility of mandibular anterior teeth was collected from the record and analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software, Version 23. In the present study, majority of the patients with trauma from occlusion presented with clinical attachment loss (43%) and mobility in mandibular anterior teeth (38%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between trauma from occlusion and periodontal disease in mandibular anterior teeth. (p=0.000)

Assessment Of Vertical Bone Loss Sites In Diabetic Patients With Chronic Periodontitis - A Retrospective Study

APARNA .M; BALAJI GANESH .S; RAKSHAGAN V

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 85-90
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.009

Periodontitis is known as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the major outcomes of periodontitis and diabetes is considered to be the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. Patients with diabetes mellitus have a greater chance of developing destructive periodontal disease as well as greater chance of experiencing progressive alveolar bone loss. The aim of this study is to assess the vertical bone loss sites among diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. In this study sample size is selected according to inclusion criteria, among patients with both periodontitis and diabetes. Among 10,000 case records evaluated, a total of two hundred diabetic patients had periodontitis who were taken into the study. Vertical bone loss among each patient was assessed from the data retrieved from the dental records of Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Overall, vertical bone loss was more common in maxillary posteriors than other teeth among diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis. It was commonly seen among males and was profoundly found in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The association between age and gender distribution with vertical bone loss sites was found to be statistically significant.

Assessment of periodontal health among patients with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective study

NOR MASITAH MOHAMED SHUKRI; ARVINA RAJA SEKAR; ARTHI BALA SUBRAMANIAM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2020, Volume 26, Issue 2, Pages 28-34
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2020.26.02.004

Periodontitis, dental caries and oral cancer are among the most common dental diseases affecting people globally. Periodontitis has been identified as the sixth complication of diabetes, in which diabetic patients are more susceptible to develop periodontal disease thrice as often as non-diabetic patients. The risk of periodontitis increases in people with poorly controlled diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal health among patients with diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted from June 2019-March 2020 among patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 200 patients with diabetes were enrolled. Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records and analysis was carried out using IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS version 23). Descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentage) and inferential statistics (chi-square test) were done.  In the present study, out of 200 diabetic patients, 116 patients had gingivitis and 84 patients had periodontitis. Prevalence of both gingivitis and periodontitis was higher among patients within the age group of 45-54 years. Also, prevalence of both gingivitis and periodontitis was higher in males than females. Association between age and periodontal status was found to be statistically significant with the p value of 0.04. The present study showed the prevalence of gingivitis and periodontitis among diabetic patients was 58% and 42% respectively.