Volume 27, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2021


Quality indicators and commodity of apple varieties

BEYAHMEDOV I.A

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1-4
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.001

The article was informed about research results related to the commodity and quality
indicators to Azerbaijan introduced varieties of apples. The analysis carried out in the north-east
of the country- in the conditions of Guba, Gusar, Shabran regions on the cultivated apple varieties.
This time were analyzed in the following varieties:
- The sorts as Qala, Conaqored, Qrani Smit, Fuji, Simirenko reneti, Qolden Delişse x 972,
Conaqold growned on the grafted of the wild forest apple in the area 5x4 m in 2005 in the village
Timiryazev of the Quba region;
- The sorts as Conaqored, Golden Reinders, Grani Smith, Aydared, Red Vinter, Fuji growned on
the grafted of M-9 in the area 4x1,25m in 2008-2009 in the village Teni hayat of the region
Gusar;
- The sorts as Qala, Conaqored, Qrani Smit, Fuji, Simirenko reneti, Qolden Delişse x 972,
Conaqold growned on the grafted of M-9 in the area 5x3 in 2008-2009 in the village
Dashliyataq of the region Shabran.
The research was carried out on the generally accepted methods on basics of gardening. This
time,the average weight of the fruit was on the basis of the average weight of 100 fruit: many
large - weighing more than 175 g; large - weighing 175-126 g; average - mass 125-101q; small -
weighing 100-76 g; very small - weighing less than 76 grams.
The study chemical composition of apple varieties was carried out in the technology,
biochemistry and fruit processing laboratory of SRIFT. This time, basically has been identified
total and soluble dry substance, sugar, coloring ingredients, ascorbic acid. The soluble dry matter
by refractometric method, vitamin C with the help of Tilsman reagent, sugars according to
Bertrand, coloring items according to Leventhal and Neybayep has been identified .
It was determined that grafted onto the cultivated varieties wild apple woods product intended
for processing industry in comparison, in varieties grown on grafted clone more storage and for
use in case of fresh fruit. The analysis determined that Cır Hajı from local varieties indicators lag
behind a lot introduced new apple varieties despite the fact that dominating according to the
chemical composition the apple varieties introduced earlier.


Investigating the relationship between competitive intelligence and risk dimensions and job performance of employees in Kerman Saderat bank branches

ALI BARAKCHI; MALIKEH BEHESHTIFAR; MAHMOOD MOGHADAM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 5-18
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.002

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between competitive
intelligence and risk-taking with the employees' job performance in Kerman Saderat bank
branches in 2015. The method of study was descriptive and correlation. The statistical population
of this study included all 251 employees of Saderat Bank in Kerman that by using Cochran
formula a sample size of 152 people was selected. In this study, three questionnaires of
competitive intelligence with 0.91 validity and 0.93 reliability and risk taking questionnaire with
0.93 validity and 0.95 reliability and job performance questionnaire with 0.92 validity and 0.84
reliability were used. The collected data were analyzed by using Smart PLS 2. The results showed
that there is a relationship between competitive intelligence and risk-taking and the job
performance among the employees working in Kerman Saderat bank branches. Among the
components of competitive intelligence; a direct and significant relationship was found between
technical knowledge and strategic and social knowledge with job performance of the employees.
Among the risk taking components; the two components of credit risk, operational risk, and
market risk were significantly correlated with job performance of the employees. Therefore, it is
recommended that the bank managers have a correct and scientific management of the bank assets
and debts and they assess their own current and potential competitors to take step toward a better
performance of the employees in order to have growth and profitability in the banks and attract
financial resources.


A Socio-Economic Perspective of B40 Household Budgets in Malaysia

NADIAH HAMID; ZAILAWATI YAACOB; ZURAEDA IBRAHIM; SARINI AZIZAN; NORFADZILAH RASHID5

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 19-24
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.003

This paper explores the main determinants of the socio-economic characteristics in Malaysian households in terms of budget and income. Generally, the amount of expenditures depends on the changes in household budgets; thus, income and wealth are the primary determinants of household budgets and consequently consumption patterns. In the wake of Covid-19, Malaysia’s economy has been highly impacted and people were unable to run businesses or any economic activities except for those classified as essential services such as hospitality, medical, foods and beverages, and retailing. As such, these have impacted the people with lower income earnings, especially the Bottom 40, which is classified as those with household income median of RM3,000. The B40s spend their income mainly on life necessities whereby a higher saving rate would be an assurance for higher future consumption. In view of this, the government must play its role in helping the B40s fulfill their necessities through significant policies such as increasing the amount of Bantuan Sara Hidup (BSH), providing an old-age pension, and addressing poverty problems among B40s as well as drafting a long-term plan to mitigate these problems. 

Business Risks and Performance of SMEs in the Malaysian Construction Sector

FAUZILAH SALLEH; WAN ROHAIZAD; NOOR MOHD ZAIB; NUR KADIMON; SYARMIDAH SYAHRUDDIN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 25-31
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.004

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), especially their business risks and performance, are the primary economic drivers of the construction sector in Malaysia. Most studies focused on the performance of SMEs, but their business risks were underexplored. With that, the current study aimed to determine the elements of business risks that affect the performance of SMEs in the construction sector within the Malaysian context. For this study, five construction companies in different states were selected as case studies. Financial risk, government regulation, managerial capacity, delay in the project, and technology were identified as the critical elements of business risks that affect the performance of SMEs. Through the emerging new ventures in the business market, the performance of SMEs is undoubtedly one of the vital economic drivers that can boost the country’s economic growth.

The Performance of Modern PLS and Conventional SEM for Second Order Construct of Family Communication Pattern Model

ASYRAF AFTHANORHAN; AZIYAH BAKAR; NAZIM AIMRAN; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 32-41
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.005

This paper is aims to determine the performance of modern Partial Least Square (PLS) and Conventional SEM in family research. As such, the adoption of Measurement of Family Communication became the subject for testing their effectiveness.  Measurement of Family Communication Pattern is broadly used to assess the happiness of the family either happy or unhappy and it was frequently noted as one of the confirmatory research. It shows that the conventional SEM was better than modern PLS in the presence of the second-order construct.

Challenges of Home Tutors in Complying With Malaysian Tax Requirement

NURNAZREENA NAWAWI; NADIAH HAMID; ROHAYU YUSOP; NORLAILA GHAZALI; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 42-51
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.006

Home Tuition has become a phenomenon in our country. Statistical reports have indicated an increasing number of tuition centres registered from 2010 to 2013 (MOE, 2013). This is because home tuition is convenient and time-saving since parents do not need to send their children to the tuition centre. According to the survey conducted by salary explorer (2020), in Malaysia, the average income for full-time home tuition is about RM8, 870 per month. This shows that the income received by home tutors is more than the minimum amount subjected to tax. However, the government faces difficulty in tracing their actual income since the majority of them did not declare it as the payment received in cash. From the IRBM report, for the year of assessment 2017, only 15.24% of the individual taxpayers complied in paying their income tax, and this percentage would also include home tutors. Specifically, this study examines the effect of factors such as knowledge, morale, and penalty on tax compliance of home tutors in Malaysia. The samples consist of home tutors registered under Private Tutor Company based in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. This study employed a questionnaire survey for the data collection method and 167 respondents answered the questionnaires distributed online such as through WhatsApp and email. All of the data were recorded under an excel spreadsheet and analyzed using SPSS version 16. The result indicated that all of the factors have a significant relationship with tax compliance. This can be useful to the government in analysing the arising issue. The findings send an important signal to the government that more tax education programs should be carried out to transfer tax knowledge to the individual taxpayers. This is vital because by having sufficient tax knowledge, taxpayers will understand their responsibilities to comply with tax obligations.

Does Nigerian Low-Income Families Need For Micro Family Takaful Scheme?

MURTALA SHA’ABAN; FAUZILAH SALLEH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 52-58
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.007

Insurance, beyond doubt, is an essential policy for poverty eradication. Since low income households can't afford the high insurance premium, the best protection is Microinsurance or Microtakaful. In terms of principle, Microtakaful is barely the same as Takaful, except that the former is based on mutual contribution with affordable price that overcomes a specific risk that plagues the low income households. Having that said, this study proposes Microtakaful as an essential mechanism that protects the low-income group, apart from reducing the poverty rate. The proposed Microtakaful framework consists of a protection scheme equipped with financial support grants from the government, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), charity institutions, waqaf, international charity organisations, and donor agencies. This offers a basis to further look into the Microtakaful product and mutual pricing model designs based on cooperative principles as a mobilisation fund aimed at eradicating poverty amidst low-income families.

Forensic Accounting Skills and the Effective Identification in Money Laundering Activities – Transaction Monitoring Perspective

FARAH HASHIM; SITI MOHAMED ZAWAWI; FATMAWATI JUSOH; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 59-65
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.008

This research examined the relationship between forensic accounting skills and the identification of money laundering activities from the perspective of transaction monitoring. The forensic accounting skills is defined to consist of skills in auditing, investigative and critical thinking. The descriptive statistic indicates that the analysts rank investigative skills as the most important skills. The multiple regression analysis on 134 data collected from the transaction monitoring analysts showed that the investigative and critical thinking skills were medium to highly correlated with the identification of money laundering activities. These findings provide valuable insight and guidance to educators, practitioners, and other related parties that they have to give emphasise on these skills such as by providing training to keep the transaction monitoring analysts of the banking institutions updated with the new developments on investigative skills and enhance on the critical thinking skills for effective identification of money laundering activities.

Better Bank Management for Sustainability - Empirical Risk Evidence from Vietnam

PHAM PHD; DINH HUY, MBA; VU ANH,PHD; LE MANH HUNG,PHD

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 66-71
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.009

Vietnam has reached a low inflation rate of 06% in year 2015, so it is good to see what happen in bank management during the post- low (L) inflation time 2015-2020, in order to propose plans to maintain banking business management sustainability.
Within volatility of multi macro factors, this paper will estimate bank risks with Beta CAPM measurement in the nation in the above selected period.
Next step, we aims to measure and evaluate how much macro factors effects in the market risk of 7 big listed banks with semiannual data. We use synthesis statistics methods, and dialectical materialism method, combined with econometric model with 9 macro variables, and figure out that lending rate and risk free rate have inverse effects on market risk. It implies that increase in lending rate will cause market risk declines whereas increase in Rf will cause beta increases. 
Then, we will suggest recommendations for improving bank management capabilities for sustainable bank management and governance. We recognize that modern advanced bank management solutions are needed for incoming periods.
JEL classification numbers: M21, G12, G30, E58, E62

Study on the possibility of applying the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology in online insurance business

DR. HUYEN; DR. THANH PHUONG; MA. THU TRANG; MA. HUYEN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 72-78
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.010

In the context of the fourth technological revolution, online insurance has become a new trend of providing insurance products around the world. In Vietnam, some insurance companies have innovatively applied new technologies in their business activities, including online insurance. However, the field of online insurance is still in slow development and there have not been studies to find out about the degree of customer acceptance of this service. Therefore, the research team conducted a survey on customers 'demand for online insurance and researched the factors affecting customers' intention and behavior for using online insurance services through the Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The research team used structural equation modeling (SEM) to evaluate the relationship between the factors in the model. The research results show that risk perception, trust, social influence, and expected performance have an impact on customers' intention to use online insurance and the relationship between customers' intention and behavior for using online insurance.

Ownership Structure and Firm Performance: Evidence from Jordan

MOHAMMAD DAKHLALLH; NORFADZILAH RASHID; WAN ABDULLAH; ABDALRAHMAN DAKHLALLH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 79-90
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.011

Previous studies dealing with corporate governance mechanisms testified to the high significance that provided some new direction. The aim of the study was to participate in these directions by presenting empirical evidence relating to the relationship between the ownership structure and firm performance in developing countries like Jordan. To estimate data for the period 2009 to 2017 for a selection of 180 companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE), we used management ownership, government ownership, family ownership, institutional ownership and block ownership to provide a comprehensive guide to the ownership structure of Jordanian companies, while we estimated the firm performance through Tobin’s Q (TQ) model. Furthermore, we employed an econometrics procedure such as crossectional dependency test, Panel unit root test (Levin-Lin-Chu (LL) test, Im-Pesaran, Madalla and Wu test and CIPS panel unit root test), Pedroni Cointegration test, System GMM and Pool Mean Group estimates. a balanced panel data method. The results of the four-panel unit root test show that the ownership structure mechanisms have stationary at the first difference, also the results of the Pedroni Cointegration test reveal that ownership structure mechanisms and firm performance have a long-run relationship. Likewise, Process GMM and PMG findings show that ownership structure processes have a significant effect on the performance of the firm estimated by (TQ). The results of this study indicate that empirical studies continue to find a perfect measurement of performance in order to achieve a real type of performance of the firm. The results of the current examination thus provide objective evidence to managers and stakeholders to assist them in their decision.

Payment system and bank performance: Evidence from Vietnam

MANH TRAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 91-94
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.012

This paper investigates the relationship between the business of payment system and the performance of banking industry in Vietnam. Using data of 20 listed banks from 2009 to 2019, we find that the innovations in mobile payment have significant impact on bank performance, while the traditional types of payment show little evidence. We also argue that payment system in Vietnam does not contribute much to the stability of banks’ performance.
JEL classification: G01, G21, G28

Factors affecting farmers’ intention to convert to organic agricultural production – a case study in hanoi, vietnam

PHAM PHD; NGUYEN PH.D.

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 95-101
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.013

In this study, the author has given different basis to build hypothesis and research models to find out the factors affecting the farmer's intention to follow organic agriculture. Firstly, this paper focuses on studying the relationship between attitudes, subjective norms and the ability to control over the intention of converting to organic farming. Secondly, the author studies the effects of comparative behavioral advantages, risk perception, and support policies from government on organic agricultural production. The main research subjects are factors affecting farmers' intention to produce organic agriculture. Hence, this research was conducted based on survey results among farmers. For the intention of adopting organic agriculture, the factor of comparative behavior advantage is considered as the strongest effect (β = 0.189) and the impact of other factors such as attitudes, subjective norms, the ability to control, personal standards, and the government' support policies is negligible. In particular, the study results show that there is no statistical evidences regarding risk perception has a direct and positive relationship with farmers' intention to produce organic agriculture among these farmers (β = 0.021, P-value> 0.05).
JEL: M21, G30

Forecast of factors affecting the fair value accounting in Vietnamese listed companies

KIM VU; NGOC BUI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 102-116
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.014

This study aims to assess the adoption of fair value accounting in Vietnam, and to forecast factors affecting the fair value (FV) application in Vietnamese listed companies. So, we used multivariate regression analysis to assess the impact of each factor on the application of fair value accounting in Vietnam, by implementing a survey of 203 accountants and directors of Vietnamese listed companies in the period from 2017 to 2019. The research results show that: for both small and medium sized enterprises and large enterprises, human resource factors have the strongest positive impact on FV application, followed by benefit factor. The factors of difficulties negatively affect this application. And, the active market factors have contradictory impacts between these two groups of enterprises. Our findings provide the significant perspectives of applying FV in Vietnamese companies, as well as different recommendations to Vietnamese policy makers in developing the legal accounting framework.
JEL classification: M41, Q56

The Influence of CEO Characteristics on Financial Reporting Quality in Nigerian Non-Financial Listed Companies

UMAR MUSTAPHA; NORFADZILAH RASHID; SADIQ ABDULLAHI; ROSEMARY OBASI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 117-122
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.015

There are several reasons through which financial statements are poorly prepared and reported in order to mislead the end-users. Also, the CEO’s claimed a high performance on their routine duties to achieve a targeted standard in their organisations. It may also be for them to maintain corporate goodwill in the eyes of the business community or to win the power of competitiveness, the craze to satisfy the greed of the company's insiders. The objective of this study is to examine the influence of CEO characteristics on the financial reporting quality of the Nigerian non-financial listed companies. The population of the study is the all non-financial listed companies in Nigeria from the year 2012 to 2017, which saved as the sample of the study. The data was collected using secondary sources from the DataStream, annual reports and account of the selected companies. The analysis was carried out using multiple regression after the necessary post estimations tests for the panel data analysis. The study recognised a negative insignificant relationship between CEO tenure and financial reporting quality, while the CEO ownership provides a positive significant relationship with financial reporting quality using accrual earnings management. The study employed the use of agency and creative accounting theories to justified the proposed hypothesis. The findings of the study highlighted the current contributions of the CEO’s towed the credibility of the Nigerian corporation’s financial reporting practices.

The Moderate Effect of Audit Committee Independence on the Board Structure and Real Earnings Management: Evidence from Jordan

MOHAMMAD DAKHLALLH; NORFADZILAH RASHID; WAN ABDULLAH; HOSSAM SHEHAB

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 123-133
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.016

The current study aimed to explore the moderate effected of independence of the audit committee on the connection between board structure (i.e. size, independence and CEO duality) and real earnings management (REM) in listed companies in Jordan. The current study covered 910 firm-year observations of the industrial and service sector listed companies in the Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) from 2009 to 2018. Using the  Fixed Effect approach, the results of the data analysis show a negative and significant impact of board size and CEO duality on REM. There was, however, a significant positive correlation between board independence and REM. In general, the findings showed that the structure of the board is a determinant of REM. In the case of the moderate effect, found the audit committee independence have moderately affected the relationship between board structure and REM. In short, the findings of this study indicate that the moderate effect of audit committee independence weakens the effect of board size and CEO duality on the determination of REM while increasing the effectiveness of board independence to control of REM. Furthermore, the findings of the current study have significant implications for audit practitioners, policymakers, investors and regulators in their efforts to limit REM activities and increase the quality of Jordanian firms' financial reporting.

The Moderating Effect of Risk-Taking Propensity on the Relationship between Perception towards Insurable Risks and General Takaful Demand Among SMEs

FAUZILAH SALLEH; ZAINUDDIN AWANG; NORFADZILAH RASHID; NIK BURHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 134-141
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.017

This study aimed to evaluate the influence of perception towards insurable risks on the general Takaful demand via risk-taking propensity among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Malaysia. This study presented essential insights that would benefit Takaful operators in determining and enhancing general Takaful demand among SMEs. Studies have identified two major factors of risk behaviour that influence general insurance demand, which are the perception towards insurable risks (independent variable) and risk-taking propensity (moderator). This study presented theoretically significant information on the incorporation of perception towards insurable risks and risk-taking propensity to explain the general Takaful model. For this study, a total of 278 SMEs in Malaysia were sampled. All gathered data were analysed using AMOS for the testing of hypotheses. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM) revealed perception towards insurable risks as the key factor that drives the general Takaful confidence in decision making and risk-taking propensity as a moderator in the relationship between the perception towards insurable risks and general Takaful demand. Apart from providing a clearer overview of Takaful demand among SMEs in Malaysia, the obtained findings of this study also highlighted the significance of healthy and ethical behaviour in decision making in order to protect the organisational resources and accomplishments.

Determining Factors Affecting Independent Auditing in Small, Medium and Big-sized Auditing Companies- Case in Vietnam

HOANG DR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 142-148
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.018

Along with the development of the economy, auditing also gradually expands the subjects of their specific interest. Previous traditional objects such as financial statements have not necessarily lost their role and position, but cannot meet all the expectations and concerns of managers and investors about the situation of the enterprise. Understanding the picture of determining the factors affecting audit fees such as finding a composite array helps to evaluate an aspect of prices and reasonable fees of auditing firms to gradually improve the audit system. math in Vietnam. And in the current period, when the audit fees are more inadequate, reflecting the inadequacies of the unfair competition, not ensuring the quality of the audit report, the research and research of it more than ever. should be very important. By using the following main research methods: Document analysis, systematic analysis, comparative comparison, survey survey method and data analysis method, to measure impacts of some factors on auditing fee, we find out the technical projects with a large scale and the legal environment has a strong impact on the strategy and policy of the audit service market more. 
Last but not least, Evaluating the impact on audit fees also contributes to helping businesses make long-term as well as short-term development strategies that are suitable for their businesses.
JEL: M1, M11, M21

Opportunities and challenges for doing business in vietnam via a multi factor model impacts

PHAM DAT; DINH HUY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 149-153
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.019

Currently, FDI inflows in Vietnam has been increasing, during impacts from Covid 19 and China-US commerce war which facilitates opportunities for US and Chinese firms to enter Vietnam market to attract qualified labor sources at competitive salary.
From this fact, it is the time for us to consider to evaluate impacts from multi factors on Doing Business score (DB score) in the country.Authors use both qualitative, analytical and synthesis methods, combined with OLS regression method.  Research results show us that in a 4 factor model, Export and FDI registration and export have positive correlation with DB score, while CPI and Import have negative correlation with DB score. Next, we recognize that CPI and FDI registration have higher coefficient and impact on DB score.
Therefore, The authors propose recommendations for improving DB score in Vietnam from ex-import and FDI attracting policies. The model can be expanded and applied to other emerging markets.
JEL: E61, F21, M20

Gender diversity in job changing researched on the job market of immigrants in dalat city, lam dong province, vietnam

DR. THI VU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 154-159
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.020

Dalat has recently marked a big change in its economics field, and it is said that such a significant breakthrough cannot be completely fulfilled if there is an ignorance of the role of female immigrants in Dalat. This paper mainly focuses on job changing of female immigrants in Dalat job market together with some other related factors resulting in such an issue. The diversity of genders can be considered not only in the presence in different working fields, working areas, working positions but also in various working movements of immigrants. The two surprising findings of this research can prove that 1/ there is a movement of male workers towards non-agriculturally- related jobs in some regions, whereas there is a domination of female immigrants in the agricultural sector in Dalat city; 2/ Many research papers have already found the important role of social capital regarding job changing, yet in this research paper a blurred vision of this culprit has been found compared with such other factors as motivation, purpose, education.... The figure of this paper has been extracted from the doctoral thesis of the researcher.

Weighted Beta CAPM Based On Bank Market Value And Meanings of Financial Data Transparency- Case of 7 Big Listed Commercial Banks In Vietnam

DINH HUY; VU ANH, PHD; NGUYEN THACH, PHD; LE HAC, PHD; TRAN ANH, PHD5; HOANG HANH, PHD

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 160-170
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.021

Estimating Beta CAPM is a basis for evaluating market risk in the banking sector in Vietnam economy, esp. During pre-low (L) inflation time 2011-2015 and post-L inflation period 2015-2020. The more the economy growing, the more important the role of risk management in commercial bank. Also, the more transparent of financial data, the better the capital flows in the banking and financial market.
This research paper aims to figure out in 7 big listed banks in Vietnam including Vietcombank (VCB), Vietinbank (CTG), Asia Commercial Bank (ACB), Sacombank (STB), Navibank (NVB) now become National Citizen Bank, Eximbank (EIB) and Saigon Hanoi Bank (SHB), how much and what is the Weighted Beta CAPM formula based on firm or bank market value during the period 2011-2020 with semiannual data.
The result will be a measurement which help us to calculate macro effects on market risk in banking industry. Research findings show us that during post-low inflation time, weighted beta CAPM tends to increase higher, so bank system need to prepare to manage risk better.
Last but not least, Our recommendation can be used for reference in many other developing markets.
JEL classification numbers: M21, M1, G12, G30

A Time To Shine: How Business Interruption Micro Takaful Scheme Step Up To Covid-19 For Micro Enterprises In Malaysia

FAUZILAH SALLEH; WAN DAUD; NOOR MOHD NOOR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 171-177
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.022

After a series of disasters, including major floods, landslides, and hurricanes, Malaysia was affected by multiple damages and losses. Moreover, with the proclamation of the Movement Control Order (MCO) by the government, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to widespread economic disruption across the country. By this year, Malaysia's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is projected to contract between 0.1 per cent and 4.6 per cent. However, this projection may be negatively impacted due to the closures of short-term business, sales losses, and the downturn in revenue. In Malaysia, the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) amounted to 907,765, in which 693,679 (76.5%) comprised of microenterprises (MEs). After ceasing their operations, these MEs and businesses were prone to bankruptcy, in which MEs were severely affected by the MCO. Therefore, this article investigated the coverage of existing insurance schemes of business interruption losses, formulated the business protection schemes against business losses by observing the effects of COVID-19, and the requirements of takaful/insurance protection, particularly on MEs in Malaysia. Hence, this article focused on business interruption during a pandemic, which involved microbusiness interruption scheme for MEs in Malaysia.

 

Board Components and Quality of Financial Reporting: Mediating Effect of Audit Quality

HAMZA QAWQZEH; WAN ENDUT; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 178-190
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.023

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating effect of audit fees as an indicator of audit quality on the board components, the directors' remunerations, and the financial reporting quality in the Jordanian context. This study used Panel Data of 180 listed firms in Amman Stock Exchange from 2009 to 2017. The collected data were analyzed using the multiple regression analysis and Causal Steps Method. The results showed that the larger size of the board and independent directors on the board have a negative and significant influence on FRQ, whereas the board expertise and directors’ remuneration have a significantly positive impact on FRQ, as supported by the Agency Theory. Regarding the audit quality, the results revealed that the board size, the board independence and the directors’ remunerations have a positive and significant effect on the audit fees as an indicator of the audit quality. In contrast, the board expertise has significantly negative impact on the audit fees, and the audit quality has a partial mediating effect on the relationship of board components with FRQ. The findings are particularly important for the shareholders and regulators in introducing new legislations regarding the board composition and audit profession, increasing the monitoring role of the independent directors and large boards on the managerial performance when preparing the financial reports and highlighting the interaction between the board effectiveness and audit quality in restricting the EM practices and ensuring FRQ in one of the developing countries (Jordan). It is shown that the factors affecting FRQ can definitely enhance their ability through the interaction with the external factors to achieve the role of board of directors in in reducing the financial fraudulent.
Originality/value – To the best knowledge of the authors, the current study is one of the first studies that addresses the directors’ remuneration and the mediating effect of the audit fees in the relationship between the board components and FRQ in Jordan and the Middle East.

Causes of Personal Financial Stress in Malaysia: A Phenomenological Study

AHMAD ADNAN; SAKINAH ZIN; MOHAMAD ABDUL AZIZ; JUNAINAH ESA; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 191-200
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.024

Weak financial planning is often the root cause of individual financial stress in Malaysia. However, this phenomenological study has discovered another major rationale. This paper attempts to explain the causes of financial stress among individuals who are almost bankrupt in Malaysia through a phenomenological approach. Three participants were involved in the observation and in-depth interviews. The classification of phenomenological data in the form of specific themes is analysed through continuous comparison methods. This study found that inaccurate tasawur or consumerism pattern had greater influence on individual financial stress than poor financial planning. The inaccurate consumerism tasawur has generated a mystical element of financial stress which is rarely discussed. These findings established the need to re-evaluate the aspects of sustainable lifestyle culture in Malaysia, and it is worth investigating.

Kinesics As A Form of Non Verbal Communication: A Textual Analysis Of The Holy Quran

MOHD OTHMAN; ZAWAWI ISMAIL; CHE ZAID; MOHAMMAD MAJID; NORDIN HALIAS; ZAILANI JUSOH; MOHD NASIR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 201-207
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.025

Al-Quran is a holy book revealed to the Moslems as a guidance.  The revelation  is very comprehensive, covering all aspects of life. As such, it is no wonder that to date, it has attracted a lot of interests from  scholars who  have tirelessly  been analyzing the contents of the book to gain better understanding of it.  One discipline that has widely been  investigated is communication, specifically non verbal.  This article is written based on a qualitative study undertaken to understand one component of non verbal communication, that is, kinesics.  The study was conducted using content analysis method whereby verses in the Quran were analysed to examine the use of kinesics as a form of communication.  The findings revealed that in al Quran, kinesics can generally be categorized into four namely 1) arm movements 2) head movements 3) leg movements, and 4) body postures including sitting down, lying down, bowing, and prostration.  The study has proven the presence of kinesics as a form of non verbal communication as clearly explicated in Al-Quran.

Personal Characteristics as Determinants Towards Intention For Financial Reporting Fraud

YUNITA AWANG; ABDUL RAHMAN; SUHAIZA ISMAIL; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 208-217
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.026

This study attempts to examine the level of intention for financial reporting fraud; and, to determine whether personal characteristics act as determinants of such intention among Muslim participants in the financial reporting process at Malaysian banking institutions.
Design/methodology/approach – Using questionnaire, the data was obtained based on non-probability purposive sampling from 121 Muslim accounting practitioners who are the participants in the financial reporting process of Malaysian banking institutions. The data is analysed using SPSS.
Findings – The findings indicate a low intention for financial reporting fraud. Only bank type and working experience in the present banking institutions are significant in determining the intention for financial reporting fraud.
Research limitations/implications – The study adds to the scant literature investigating personal characteristics influencing intentions for financial reporting fraud in the banking sector. The findings give insights to the banks’ stakeholders on the personal characteristics that may determine the intention for financial reporting fraud among the actual participants in the financial reporting process within Malaysian banking institutions. However, the use of scenario in this study may lead to the issue of social desirability bias, while the use of purposive sampling technique may limits the generalizability of its results.
Originality/value - This study examined personal characteristics of the actual participants or preparers in the financial reporting process within Malaysian banking institutions as determinants towards intention for financial reporting fraud. This study enhances the value of financial reports prepared and the trustworthiness of Muslim preparers in performing their professional duties to fulfil the financial reporting process.

The Effects of 2011 Revised Code of Corporate Governance on Financial Reporting Quality in Nigeria: The Role of Board of Directors and Audit Committee Members

UMAR MUSTAPHA; FAUZIAH TAIB; NORFADZILAH RASHID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 218-225
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.027

Nigeria’s fight to enhance investors’ confidence in the environment where pervasive corruption and weak contract enforcement has led the country into instituting general and sector-specific laws to improve business transparency, accountability and unethical earnings manipulations. The 2003 Code of Corporate Governance was amongst the first attempt to induce good governance behaviour but with little progress as the country was embroiled with unethical accounting scandals involving major international companies. The revised 2011 Code of Corporate Governance shifted the full accountability responsibility to boards of directors with an increased role for the audit committee to assist directors in scrutinising financial statements.  This paper examined the enhanced roles of the board of directors and the audit committee in curbing unethical earnings manipulations and enhancing the financial reporting quality.  Findings suggest that the role of the board of directors has not restrained companies from engaging in earnings management although the audit committee size has contributed towards enhancing the financial reporting quality. Nigeria has adopted a rule-based approach to implementing its corporate governance and it has not been successful to induce good corporate behaviour in the absence of good check and balance mechanisms in place. The human governance perspective envisages that the true essence of good governance could be achieved by placing importance on people instead of structures. It is timely that the Nigerian authorities consider this self-regulation perspective as a way forward to promote good governance and eventually, overcome all unethical practices by the corporate managers.

Factors Affecting The Decisions Of Local People To Participate In Community Tourism In The NorthWest of Vietnam

NGUYEN HUONG; BUI NHAN; DINH HUY; NGUYEN TU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 226-232
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.028

This paper aims to find out factors affecting decision making to join in community tourism via qualitative (analysis, synthesis) and quantitative methods. The Northwest of Vietnam is regarded as a region with sufficient and favorable conditions to develop community tourism. Accordingly, determining what factors affect the decisions of local people to participate in community tourism is of great significance in developing tourism and raising the competitiveness of tourism destinations in this region. On the basis of the collected primary and secondary data, the research paper has identified 4 factors affecting the decisions of local people to participate in community tourism, including: (1) Personal factors, (2) Attractiveness and images of tourism destinations in the Northwest, (3) Supports and investments from the State, local authorities, organization and enterprises in the Northwest, (4) Effects from people around; then proposed solutions to attract local people to participate in community tourism and develop this form of tourism sustainably in the Northwest of Vietnam in the coming time. For instance, we need to exploit the beauty of natural scenes of Nowthwestern mountains, forest and lakes with local attributes to reform a better community tourism in this region.

Shared Leadership, Leadership Styles in Between ERP and HRM Implementation

PHAM DAT; BUI DUC; DINH HUY; NGUYEN THACH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 233-242
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.029

The study aimed to identify the placement of shared leadership in between ERP and HRM implementation. Methodology: The following study is mainly characterised with the quantitative research design which has been selected considering the nature of the study. The present study is focused towards assessing the mediating effect of shared leadership in between ERP and HRM implementation. In this manner, the researcher has used positivism philosophy of the research along with the deductive approach which assisted the research in data collection and carrying out analysis. The questionnaire is distributed to 348 sample size to get the respondents. Findings: The results has revealed that the overall influence of shared leadership in between ERP and HRM implementation was identified to be significant. However, there was partial mediation in terms of leadership types, characteristics of leadership with respect to HRM implementation. Limitations and Implications: The following study has identified the placement of shared leadership in between HRM and ERP in the manufacturing sector of Vietnam. Moreover, there were certain limitations on this study which can be taken into consideration by the future researchers.

Improving Bank management Under Macro economic Context - Case of ACB Bank in Vietnam

NGUYEN VU; DINH HUY; VO NHAN; NGUYEN DUNG; BUI TAM; PHAN DUC; NGUYEN DAT; NGUYEN HUNG

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 243-250
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.030

Vietnam experienced the year 2015 with low CPI as of 0.6%.  It is the time to suggest solutions to improve bank management and leadership in the country in a changing macro economic context. This paper evaluate bank risks in famous risk model under impacts of both macro internal and external variables during 2 special periods: pre-Low (L) inflation time 2011-2015and post-L time 2015-2020 in the country. Therefore, in our paper, we aims to measure and evaluate how much effects in the market risk of one of big listed Vietnam commercial bank, Asia Commercial Bank (ACB) during the 2 special periods with semiannual data. We use synthesis statistics methods, and dialectical materialism method, combined with econometric model with 9 macro variables, and figure out that lending rate and risk free rate has positive impacts with bank risk. It implies that increase in lending rate, together with decrease in Rf will increase market risk.
Then, we will suggest recommendations for improving bank management capabilities and relevant government agencies. Our recommendation can be used for reference in many other developing markets.
JEL classification numbers: M21, G12, G30, E58, E62

Sustainable leadership and task performance of Vietnam textile sector

DR.PHAM HONG; DR.HUONG THI LE; DINH HUY; DR. NGUYEN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 251-257
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.031

Vietnam textile industry has contributed much for economic growth and import-export activities of the nation over years, despite of impacts from Covid 19. Our research paper aims to find out the moderating effect of psychological safety within the relationship of entrepreneurial leadership and job performance of textile industry in Vietnam. For this objective, the data was collected from surveys with senior managers. The findings have shown that entrepreneurial leadership had a positive and significant relation with the team task performance and individual job performance. For sustainable leadership, Vietnam textile need to increase task performance in group and as individual. This is to focus on productivity and efficiency and create core values fro Vietnam textile firms.
Last but not least, we recognize the importance between sustainable leadership and psychological security in the textile sector. Our research findings may be expanded for other industries as well as other emerging markets.

The influence of leadership styles, organizational changes on employee performance with an environment work as an intervening variable at pt. Bank sumut binjai branch

REZA ICHSAN; LUKMAN NASUTION; SARMAN SINAGA; DHONI MARWAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 258-264
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.032

The purpose of this study is to find out whether the Leadership Style and Organizational
Influence on Employee Performance with The Work Environment As Intervening Variables. The
samples used in this study amounted to 47 employees of PT. Bank Sumut Binjai Branch. The data
was obtained by distributing questionnaires about Leadership Style, Organizational Change,
Employee Performance and Work Environment by distributing to 47 employees who had been
respondents. Data analasis using Path Analysis (A combined model between multiple regression
and intervening models). The results showed a direct influence of Leadership Style (X1) affecting
Employee Performance (Y) by 0.337 or 34%. Organizational Change (X2) affects Employee
Performance (Y) by 0.467 or 47%. Leadership Style (X1) affects the Work Environment (Z) by
0.289 or 29%. Organizational Change (X2) affects the Work Environment (Z) by 0.331 or 33%.
Employee Performance (Y) affects the Work Environment (Z) by 0.454 or 45%. This research also
showed the indirect influence of Leadership Style on Employee Performance Through Work
Environment by 0.152 or by 15%. And the indirect influence of Organizational Changes on
Employee Performance through the Work Environment is 0.212 or 21%.


Indonesia defence diplomacy strategy in resolving china claims to Indonesia exclusive economic zone in north natuna sea

SUTRIMO SUMARLAN; SUDIBJO ,; AHMAD G.DOHAMID

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 265-272
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.033

China's unilateral claim through the nine-dash line map covered part of the Indonesian
Exclusive Economic Zone in the North Natuna Sea. This research endeavored to explain
Indonesian Defense Diplomacy Strategy in resolving the claim peacefully, by avoiding open
military confrontation adhering to the principles of international maritime law UNCLOS 1982.
The cooperation between the two countries is much broader and takes into account Indonesia's
national interests. Therefore, the researchers offered an approach to avoid conflict through a
defense diplomacy strategy that chose to cool down the tensions between the two countries. It was
called as cool defense diplomacy.


Influence of Age on Oral Hygiene Status in Out patients Attending a Private Dental Institution - A Retrospective Study

FAAZILA FATHIMA; L. LEELAVATHI; SENTHIL P

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 273-280
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.034

Effective and efficient oral hygiene practices are essential tools for achieving good oral health. Even though the value of good oral hygiene practices has increased over the years, many studies state that poor oral hygiene levels is still highly prevalent. Preventive strategies, both at individual and population level will help to reduce the negative impact of oral hygiene on oral and general health. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between age and oral hygiene among outpatients who reported to a private dental college and hospital. It is a university setting study. About 7987 adult patients who reported to the dental college were included in the study. The data of the oral hygiene index simplified (OHIS) of these patients were collected from patient records. The data was entered in excel and imported to SPSS software for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used for analyzing the data. From the results, it was observed that as age increased OHIS score also increased. OHIS score of good was prevalent in 38.2% of the study population, fair OHIS score in 56.4% and poor OHIS score in 5.4% of the outpatients. Fair OHIS(56.4%) score was the most prevalent among the study population. Age wise comparison of OHIS score revealed that  fair  and poor  OHIS scores was most prevalent among outpatients above 55 years old and this was found to be statistically significant. This study concludes that poor OHIS scores was more prevalent among study participants above 55 years when compared to other age groups.

Radiographic Evaluation of Permanent Canine Development Based on Nollas Stage of Tooth Development In 6–8-Year-Old Male Children

G.NITHYA KARPAGAM; DR.BHAGYA T; DR.DINESH PRABU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 281-288
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.035

The aim of this study is to radiographically evaluate the permanent canine development based on nollas stage of tooth development in 6 to 8 year old male children. A total of about 400 orthopantamograhic (OPG) images were collected from the  database record of the dental institution between June 2019-March 2020. Of these 51 OPGs were selected based on the age group between 6-8 years old male children. Dental age of developing permanent canine was calculated based on the nollas method. After data collection statistical analysis was  done in SPSS software. Among the study population 47.1% were 8 years old, 45.10% were 7 years old and 7.84% were 6 years old. Considering the distribution of teeth assessed 31.37% were 13, 31.37% were 43, 21.57% were 33 and 15.69% were 23. Within the limitations of the study it was concluded that, majority of the canine teeth assessed among 6 to 8 years old children had canine almost completed (Stage 5) or crown completed (Stage 6) according to Nollas stage of tooth development. All the children in the age group of 6 years had 2/3rd crown completed in canine (Stage 4). Majority of the children in the age group of 7 years and 8 years had ‘crown almost completed’ (Stage 5).

Prevalence of Denture Stomatitis and Its Predisposing Conditions - A Retrospective Institutional study

GODLIN J; SUBHASHREE. R; NIVEDHITHA S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 289-296
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.036

Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition affecting denture wearers. It can occur mostly due to Candida infection or mechanical irritation from denture or allergic reaction to any of the material used for fabricating denture.  Denture stomatitis is considered a multifactorial disease as it can occur due to occlusal disharmony and ill fitting dentures, blockage of mucous glands, candida albicans. Various treatment and preventive measures are based on etiology of denture stomatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of type of denture stomatitis and its association with age, gender and type of treatment given. A retrospective study was done from 1 June 2019 till 1 March 2020. Data was reviewed  from the patients records and analysed the data of 86,000 patients between June 2019 and March 2020 that were documented in a private institution. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association between denture stomatitis with age, gender and type of treatment given. Prevalence of Type I denture stomatitis was 35.19%, Type II denture stomatitis was 44.44%, Type III denture stomatitis was 20.37%. The association between age group and type of denture stomatitis showed that there was no significant relation between age and type of denture stomatitis. Association between type of denture stomatitis and gender was statistically significant (p<0.05). The association between the type of denture stomatitis and treatment given was not significant. Type II denture stomatitis is the most common type of denture stomatitis and occurs mostly between age groups 41 to 59 years with females having higher prevalence compared to males. Most common treatment suggested was denture correction. To reduce the risk of denture stomatitis, dentists should take a step to educate the patients how to use dentures and risk associated with not maintaining well and how to prevent it.

Incidence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Patients Visiting A Private Dental Institution

FAHMIDA RAHMAN; VIVEK NARAYAN; UMA MAHESHWARI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 297-304
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.037

Oral mucosal lesions act as a protective barrier against various harmful external agents. A wide variety of lesions and conditions either harmless or with serious complications may attack oral mucosa. Therefore, proper identification and treatment of these lesions play an important role in total oral health. It is a retrospective study. A total of 41439 patient records between January 2019 and December 2019 were evaluated in this study. Data such as age, gender, types of oral mucosal lesions were retrieved from the patient records of the private dental institution, Chennai. The data are then tabulated in Microsoft Excel and subsequently transferred to SPSS software for statistical analysis. Chi square test was done and the association between age and gender with types of oral mucosal lesions were found to be statistically significant. The incidence of oral mucosal lesions was 3.79 per 1000 per year. Overall, leukoplakia (27%) had the maximum predilection followed by smoker’s palate (23%). Patients in the age group of 41 to 50 years were having the highest predilection for oral mucosal lesions (27.7%). Out of the 5 categories of oral mucosal lesions, potentially malignant disorders (60%) were highly prevalent in our study. This can be attributed to the increase in various adverse habits such as smoking, chewing tobacco, tobacco products and many more. More awareness about tobacco and its harmful effects must be promoted in order to prevent the rising numbers in potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer.

Choice of Appliance System in Adult Patients with Different Types of Malocclusion

P. DEEKSHEETHA; A.SUMATHI FELICITA; NASHRA KAREEM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 305-312
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.038

The aim of this study was to assess the choice of appliance system in adult patients namely those over 30 years of age with different malocclusions. There is an array of various orthodontic appliances used for the correction of different malocclusion in orthodontics. The appliances required for a particular type of malocclusion may not be well suited for another type of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatments are generally considered to cause discomfort to the patient and are time-consuming.  Hence, the selection of the orthodontic appliance has a paramount role in the treatment of malocclusion. This was an University based cross sectional study conducted on male and female patients ranging from 30 to 50 years of age who reported for orthodontic treatment. The type of malocclusion, and the type of appliance used to correct the malocclusion present were assessed. The data was collected and tabulated in excel sheet, and exported to SPSS software for statistical analysis. The most common type of malocclusion in patients over 30 years of age who had reported for orthodontic treatment was class I malocclusion (81.43%), followed by class II malocclusion (17.14%)  and the least number of patients had class III malocclusion (1.43% ). Among these patients, fixed appliances were the most commonly used treatment modality (95.7 %). There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of malocclusion in patients over 30 years of age with Class I malocclusion being the most prevalent (p=0.000). There was no statistical significance between the different types of appliances used for the correction of class I and class II malocclusion (p= 0.687). Among fixed appliance metal brackets were the most commonly used compared to ceramic and lingual brackets (p=0.000).

Association of Tooth Loss in Chronic Periodontitis Patients with And Without Mellitus

PAVITHRA H DAVE; BALAJI S; MAHESH RAMAKRISHNAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 313-323
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.039

Tooth loss is a negative public health outcome that substantially affects not only the general and oral health status of people, but also their quality of life. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most widespread epidemics experienced worldwide; hence the aim of this study is to find the association of tooth loss in chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetes mellitus. This cross sectional study consisted of a sample size of 547 patients of which 270 were diabetic patients and 277 were non diabetic patients and were distributed into two groups. After collection of data, it was tabulated with parameters such as name of the patient, age, gender, systemic condition, type of periodontal disease and tooth loss. The cast sheets of patients were obtained from the patient management software. The data of each patient was obtained and tabulated. The most common missing teeth were found to be upper anteriors and it had a higher prevalence of tooth loss in the non-diabetic group (26.82%) than in the diabetic group (18.43%). Association between tooth loss and systemic conditions was done using Chi square test p value- 0.008 and was found to be statistically significant. Tooth loss was higher in the age group of 61-70 years for the diabetic group and in the age group of 50-60 years for the non-diabetic group. The association between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease is a well known fact. Therefore oral health education programs should be promoted in patients, which aids in early diagnosis and prevention of severe periodontal diseases.

Evaluation of Periodontal Health Adjacent to Class V Restoration

NURUL MOHD AZLAN SUNIL; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; REVATHI DURAISAMY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 324-329
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.040

Periodontal health and dental restoration are inseparably interrelated. The margin adaptation, the proximal relationship, the contours of restoration and the smoothness of restoration surface have a major biological impact on the gingiva and supporting periodontal structures. Cervical placed restorative margins usually have a detrimental effect of periodontal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal health adjacent to class V restoration. The retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private dental institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 942 patients (159 females and 783 males) with class V restorations were recruited.  Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients  were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. The present study showed 95.1% of teeth demonstrated pocket depth of 1-3 mm and 4.9% had pocket depth of 4mm or more. 65.7% of teeth presented with clinical attachment loss and prevalence was more males (67%) compared to females (59.1%). 84.5% of teeth were observed to have bleeding on probing and prevalence was more in males (85.8%) compared to females (78%). Statistically significant association was found between clinical attachment loss and class V restoration and also between bleeding on probing and class V restoration. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that most teeth with class V restoration presented with clinical attachment loss (65.7%) and bleeding on probing (84.5%). Also, males showed higher prevalence of clinical attachment loss and bleeding on probing when compared to females.

Retrospective Analysis on Sutures Used for Open Method Extraction in Patients Attending A Private Dental Institution

KAUSALYAH MALAY; BALAKRISHNAN R.N; JAYANTH V

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 330-335
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.041

Procedure for open method extraction, initially starts with giving local anaesthesia injection and followed by incisions and flap design. Sutures are defined as stitches or series of stitches made to secure apposition of the edges of a surgical or traumatic wound. It is also defined as any strand or material utilized to ligate blood vessels or approximate tissues. To determine the presences of sutures in open method extraction The purpose of the study was to assess the sutures in open method extraction (post operatively). A study was carried out by collecting data by reviewing patients data and analysing the data of 86000 patients between June 2019 and March 2020 at the private dental institute. The sample size that was taken is 292 patients who came to the private dental institute for consultation. The case sheets of those patients were reviewed for presence or absence of sutures post operative to open method extraction. Data was statistically analysed using SPSS 2.0, Chi-Square Test was conducted. Result was recorded. Majority of the dental students used suturing as the wound closure for post operative open method extraction procedure. Within the limitation of the study, male patients were predominant and suture was present in majority cases of post open method extraction. And the most common site which underwent open method extraction was tooth number 48 and 38 ( lower third molars). 

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Prophylactic Use of Antibiotics Among Crri Students in A Private Dental Institution -A Questionnaire Based Study

NIVETHA G; SRI D; ARVIND S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 336-343
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.042

Antibiotics are important in the management and prophylaxis of infection in patients at risk experiencing microbial disease.Overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics is closely related to an increase in bacterial resistance.The aim of this present study is to assess the knowledge, attitude,practice of interns who are studying in Saveetha Dental College regarding prophylactic use of antibiotics.A cross sectional study was carried in April 2020 among interns of Saveetha Dental College and Hospital,Chennai.A questionnaire  based study .A questionnaire consisting of 15 questions on knowledge ,attitude and practice regarding prophylactic use of antibiotics were formulated and distributed among interns through Google forms.The responses were obtained and entered in Excel sheet.A chi square test were done between gender and knowledge,gender and attitude and gender and practice using SPSS software.The independent variables were age and gender while dependent variables were knowledge,attitude and practice of prophylactic use of antibiotics.The results showed that about 52.89% of interns had fair knowledge, 51.92% had negative attitude,44.23% had good practice towards prophylactic use of antibiotics The present study concludes that interns possessed fair knowledge but a negative attitude and moderate  practice on prophylactic use of antibiotics.

Incidence of Transalveolar Extraction in Upper First Molar Among Patients Visiting A Dental Hospital

OVIYA. V. J; HEMAVATHY MURALIDOSS; DEEPA GURUNATHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 344-351
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.043

Transalveolar extraction is a method employed when normal forceps extraction is not possible due to various difficulties which included tooth fracture during normal extractions. Though this technique is employed in clinical practice, it can lead to several complications after surgery. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of transalveolar extractions of upper first molar. A retrospective study was conducted. Data collection was done through reviewing records of 86000 patients visiting a hospital in Chennai from June(2019) to March(2020). A total of 1453 patients who had undergone extraction of upper first molar were evaluated. Data such as age, gender, type of extraction and tooth number were evaluated. Both frequency and Chi-square tests were done through IBM SPSS statistical analysis. Prevalence of transalveolar extractions in the upper first molar was 1.5% in the study population. Among the individuals who had undergone transalveolar extraction, 59.09% were males and 40.91% were females. About 59.09% of the transalveolar extractions occurred in the age group of 20-40. Within the limits of this study, the incidence of transalveolar extraction was 1.5% of the upper first molar and more prevalent among the 20-40 age group.

Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Based Survey Towards Successful Restorations of Composite Among practitioners

KALYANI BEHERA.A; ADIMULAPU SANDEEP; HARIPRIYA S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 352-364
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.044

Composite resins are currently the most popular of all tooth coloured restorative materials, which completely replaced silicate cement and acrylic resin as esthetic restorative materials. Aesthetically pleasing restorations are much desirable in current day dentistry and efforts have been made to develop a restorative material to suit  the patient's desired needs. The present study by means of a close ended questionnaire evaluates the knowledge, attitude and practice of the endodontists, general dentists, postgraduates and undergraduates towards successful restoration of composite. An online survey form, close ended questionnaires was distributed randomly among 150 respondents. Questions related to 5 knowledge, 5 attitude and 5 practice were presented. All the data was compiled and tabulated in Microsoft Excel and exported to IBM SPSS 20 software and data was represented through chi square tests performed for the comparison between Endodontists, General dental practitioners, Postgraduates and undergraduates. Results were obtained and depicted as graphs which showed the knowledge score as 53.16%, attitude score as 63.82% and practice score as 62.4%. Participants were of mean age groups of 31-40 years of age. More Continuing Dental Education Programmes(CDE),seminars and other educational programmes are required to strengthen the deficit in knowledge and improve treatment planning skills among postgraduate students of Endodontics. Within the limitations of the study, it shows that knowledge with regard to successful composite restoration is moderate, compared to attitude and practice among respondents. It is recommended there is a need for continued professional education and clinical training of the dentists towards all aspects related to composite restorations in order to achieve desired results and esthetics within a stipulated time.

Knowledge Attitude and Practice Regarding Behaviour Counselling Techniques for Tobacco Cessation Among Interns of a Private Dental Institution

KARTHIKESON. P.S; SRI SAKTHI; KIRAN KUMAR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 365-372
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.045

Physicians and dental practitioners play an important role in smoking cessation since many patients attempt to quit smoking by frequent visits and following physician's advice . Although many dentists express a positive attitude to educate smoking cessation among patients, few relatively assist smokers to quit. It is important for the dentists to know about smoking cessation and its significance in changing behaviour of smokers.The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and practice among interns regarding tobacco cessation and counselling techniques.This cross sectional study is done in form of an online survey comprising 15 questions regarding knowledge, attitude and practice regarding tobacco succession. The survey was distributed to 110 interns of private dental college only after their consent. Responses were recorded in Google forms with inclusion of one week scheduling. 90% of response rate was observed.Knowledge (63%), attitude (70%) ,practise (30%) among interns were observed. Overall knowledge and attitude among interns regarding tobacco cessation was found to be fair. Within the limitations of current study, knowledge attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation was fair overall among interns of private dental college

Prevalence of Skeletal and Dental Anchorage Usage During Orthodontic Space Closure

ARATHI MURUGESAN; SARAVANA DINESH S.P; NIVETHIGAA BALAKRISHNAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 373-379
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.046

Anchorage control plays a vital role in the effective management of orthodontic treatment for obtaining both structural and facial esthetics. Anchorage can be augmented by various methods. Anchorage support can be derived from the teeth or bone and is called dental anchorage or skeletal anchorage respectively. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of use of skeletal anchorage and dental anchorage during space closure in all extraction cases and also to study the association between the type of anchorage used and the nature of treatment results required for the patient. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai.  320 records of patients who underwent orthodontic treatment with extraction were extracted and divided into two groups based on the type of intraoral anchorage used - dental anchorage and skeletal anchorage. The samples were also divided based on the type of treatment results required for the patients, that is, pure dentoalveolar change and dentoalveolar change along with skeletal change. 28.75% patients were treated using skeletal anchorage and 71.25% patients were treated using dental anchorage. 72.19% of the selected sample required pure dentoalveolar changes whereas 27.81% of the sample required both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. P- value of less than 0.001 was obtained as result of chi-square test indicating that there was a significant association between the type of anticipated results and the type of anchorage used. The use of conventional dental anchorage for space closure is more prevalent than skeletal anchorage. Skeletal anchorage was commonly used for patients who required both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes.

Association Between Trauma from Occlusion and Periodontal Status of Mandibular Anterior Teeth

HARIPRIYA. R; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; NIVETHIGAA. B

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 380-385
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.047

Any occlusal force which goes beyond the adaptive capacity of our periodontium causes injury to periodontal structure, and the resultant trauma is called trauma from occlusion (TFO). Several views have been interpreted as trauma from occlusion as an etiological factor or cofactor for occurrence of periodontal status. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between trauma from occlusion and mandibular anterior teeth. This retrospective study  was conducted in a private institution in Chennai using the patient records from June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 100 patients were randomly selected and were categorized into two groups; Group 1 (n=50): patients with TFO and Group 2 (n=50): patients without TFO. Data regarding the presence or absence of clinical attachment loss and mobility of mandibular anterior teeth was collected from the record and analysed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software, Version 23. In the present study, majority of the patients with trauma from occlusion presented with clinical attachment loss (43%) and mobility in mandibular anterior teeth (38%). Also, there was a statistically significant association between trauma from occlusion and periodontal disease in mandibular anterior teeth. (p=0.000)

Comparison and Evaluation of Different Suture Materials used for the Post-Operative Closure Following Extraction of Third molars.

KIRTANA GOPALASAMY; PRADEEP D

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 386-394
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.048

Suture materials play a very important role in healing and enabling reconstruction and reassembly of tissue separated by the surgical procedure or trauma. Suture materials are used daily in oral surgery, and are considered to be substances most commonly implanted in the human body. Silk has been used as biomedical suture material for centuries and it provides important clinical repair options for many applications but the disadvantage is the biocompatibility problems .In the present day, Vicryl suture material is the most commonly used material in oral surgery, as it proves to be more biocompatible and plaque accumulation is reduced . Evaluation of 685 patients undergoing third molar extractions and evaluate the type of suture material given and compare between the different suture materials and their efficacy . Excel tabulation was done and SPSS results were derived .The study was able to evaluate and notice that Silk suture material was the most commonly given suture material and based it was also seen that the plaque accumulation was more in patients given silk sutures while Vicryl sutures was used the most post extraction of 18,28.From the present study we were able to conclude that Silk was the commonly used suture Material and the incidence of surgical site infection were greater in these patients . Of the 63 patients that were given Vicryl Sutures , there was no Surgical Site Infection (SSI) observed in any of the patients , this is attributed to the Antibacterial properties of Vicryl sutures that helps in avoiding surgical site infections ,

Association of Gender to Mandibular Second Molars with Single Fused Canal: A Retrospective study

RUKHSAAR GULZAR; MANISH RANJAN; J MAHALAKSHMI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 395-401
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.049

The occurrence of aberrant anatomy is one of the causes of endodontic failures when they are not detected accurately. Hence understanding these anomalies is highly important for a dental practitioner. The present retrospective study was conducted to analyse the incidence of a single fused canal in mandibular second molars and its association with gender . Data was obtained from the database of the institute and the preoperative and obturation radiographs were evaluated. The details were entered in an excel sheet and a descriptive statistical analysis and a chi square test  by SPSS. The results of the present study showed a 1.6% chance of occurance of a single fused root with a single canal in a mandibular second molar with a higher predilection for females. These results are statistically significant with a p value of 0.012. From a clinical point of application, a complete examination from multiple angled radiographs and three dimensional assessment must be conducted when an unusual anatomic form is encountered. This will reveal accurate details and will help in preventing iatrogenic errors which often lead to the failure of endodontic treatment. 

Correlation Between the Sagittal Skeletal Relationship and Lower Anterior Facial Height - A Retrospective Study

DR.MATHEW MALIAEL; DR.M. KUMAR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 402-408
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.050

This investigation aimed to study and evaluate the correlation between the Sagittal Skeletal Relationship and the Lower Anterior Facial Height. A single-center data collection was done. 490 Lateral Cepahalograms were collected and traced. Only adult patients with average were considered for the study. 31 cephalograms were included. Beta angle measurement was used to divide the cephalograms into 3 groups. The lower anterior facial height measurement was made for each cephalogram. The Data was tabulated into an MS Excel spreadsheet. One Way ANOVA analysis was performed to study the correlation between the groups. The average Lower anterior facial height for all the groups 68.47  11.3 mm. The significance derived from the ANOVA test is 0.762. No statistically significant correlation between the Sagittal Skeletal Relationship and Lower Anterior Facial Height in the south Indian population

Association of Vertical Growth Pattern with Various Malocclusions Among Subjects Reporting to An Institutional Set Up

KIRUTHIKA PATTURAJA; RAVINDRA JAIN; IFFAT NASIM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 409-417
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.051

Facial vertical growth pattern plays an important role in achieving facial balance as well as response to orthodontic treatment. Variation in growth pattern ,function of soft tissue and jaw musculature has an impact on dentoalveolar tissues thus influencing the pattern of malocclusion.  The present study aims to identify the vertical growth patterns and its association with different malocclusion. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private University hospital between June 2019 to March 2020. The sample size consisted of a total of 225 patients  based on malocclusion (class I -75 , class II - 75, Class III  -75) whose data on age, gender, skeletal growth pattern  were recorded.  Frequency distribution and chi-square tests were applied for statistical analysis in SPSS 20.0. The study results showed that there is a statistically significant association between type of malocclusion and vertical growth pattern (p=0.026) vertical growth pattern was common in  class II malocclusion. Also there was no statistically significant difference between vertical growth pattern and age (p= 0.524), gender (p=0.178).Hence it can be concluded that vertical growth pattern is not associated with age, gender but in subjects with class II malocclusion vertical growth pattern is more common than in other malocclusions.

Need for Orthodontic Treatment Among Adults with Generalized Chronic Periodontitis

Nurul Syamimi Azlan Sunil; Ravindra Kumar Jain M.D.S; Revathi Duraisamy M.D.S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 418-426
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.052

One of the most common etiologic factors of periodontitis is malocclusion. Malocclusion as an etiologic factor to periodontitis is due to certain morphological traits of malocclusion which impede and prevent oral hygiene and self cleaning, which then leads to increased bacterial dental plaque accumulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for orthodontic treatment among adults suffering from chronic periodontitis. This study included adults, both males and females who reported to Saveetha Dental College between June 2019 to March 2020. Inclusion criteria included adult patients between 18 to 40 years with chronic periodontitis. Patients outside  the age range were excluded from the study. Around 86000 patient records were reviewed and analysed for the inclusion criteria and the following parameters were extracted; (i) patients’ gender, (ii) patient’s diet and (iii) presence of habits and (iv) orthodontic treatment need. Need for orthodontic treatment was measured using Dental Health Components of Orthodontic Treatment Need (DCH-IOTN). Data was recorded in Microsoft Office Excel (2013) and analysed using SPSS Software Version 26.0. Chi-square test was done to find out the association in need for orthodontic treatment between variables such as patient’s gender, diet and presence of habits. Significant level test was set at p<0.05. A total of 149 patients presented with chronic periodontitis and 63.4% of these patients needed orthodontic treatment (37.9% with need for orthodontic treatment and 25.5% with borderline need). 65.9% females and 62.4% males needed treatment. 96.1% of patients who presented with habits need orthodontic treatment. No statistically significant association was observed in gender and diet (p>0.05). Statistically significant association was found between patients with and without habits (p<0.05). Within the limits of this study, it was observed that the majority of patients with chronic periodontitis needed orthodontic treatment and treatment need was more common in females. Majority of patients with habits needed orthodontic treatment.

Nasolabial Angle in Patients with Maxillary Incisor Proclination- A Retrospective study

APARNA. M; NIVETHIGAA B; RAKSHAGAN V

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 427-433
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.053

Nasolabial angle is a key indicator of facial esthetics and plays an important role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Nasolabial angle is formed between a tangent to the lower border of the nose and a line joining the subnasale with the labial portion of the upper lip. Normal range of the nasolabial angle  is  90 to 110 degrees.The aim of this study was  to evaluate the gender association of various forms of nasolabial angle in patients with the maxillary incisor proclination. A total of six hundred and thirty five patients between  the age group of 18 to 30 years were taken into study. Their cases reports were reviewed and retrieved from dental records  and the data related to the correlation of nasolabial angle with the proclination of maxillary incisor were retrieved and tabulated. The correlation of nasolabial angle with age and gender distribution of patients with proclination of maxillary incisor was found using chi square test analysis in which P value was < 0.05 and this study is statistically significant.It is thus , important to record the soft tissue details and utilize them during diagnosis and treatment planning  ,so that both functional and esthetic harmony could be obtained.

Assessing the Influence of Type of Base Materials on Choosing Permanent Restoration in Pulp Capping - A Retrospective Analysis

KEERTHIKA. R; SUBASH SHARMA; SURENDAR SUGUMARAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 434-442
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.054

The success of vital pulp therapy techniques is considerably dependent on the technique employed,the inflammatory status of the pulp tissue,the type of pulp therapy agent used and period of observation. The commonly used agents are calcium hydroxide ,Resin modified glass ionomer cement and mineral trioxide aggregate. The permanent restoration following the pulp capping plays a very crucial role in the success of the treatment. The commonly used restorations are composites,amalgam and bilayered restoration.The aim of this study was to assess the type of base materials in pulp capping and its influence on permanent restoration.A cross sectional study done at Saveetha Dental College with the sample size of 69 was analysed. The factors like age ,gender,base material ,type of teeth and permanent restoration were assessed. The P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be significant.Result of type of base material showed,Calcium hydroxide >Calcium hydroxide +Resin modified glass ionomer cement >Bio aggregate material and the permanent restoration showed Composite >Bilayered restoration > Amalgam.The statistical analysis showed the p value =0.338( >0.05) ,which implies that there is no significant association between the type of base material with the type of permanent restoration.The current study showed that calcium hydroxide and composite restoration were the preferred options of base material and permanent restoration respectively.But with recent advances it has been proved that Bioaggregate material has better properties than calcium hydroxide ,which is no longer a gold standard material.

Preparedness of Interns of a Private Dental Institution to Be A Part of The Task Force in Pandemic Control - A Questionnaire Survey

RESHMI B; D.SRI SAKTHI; ARVIND S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 443-450
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.055

As a normal situation of disease can take over a pandemic role and affect the population around the world,it's necessary for all the doctors and front line officers to be ready to act in case of any emergency at any time. This survey aims to assess the knowledge and attitude of interns,  towards handling a pandemic situation without fear and hesitation. This online questionnaire survey containing 15 items were  used among 100 interns of a private dental college in chennai. The responses obtained  were collected and tabulated in excel and then exported to SPSS, chi square test was used to check the association between gender and knowledge , knowledge and attitude. 13.0% of females had good knowledge when compared to males (4.0%)  and  32.0% males had positive attitudes, when compared to 21% females. It can be concluded that a positive attitude in nearly 50% of the study population with fair to poor knowledge, might not make them competent enough in being a part of the task force. Rigorous training and stringent protocols on infection control would prepare the target population for the new normal situation arising in the world

Evaluation of Type of Impression Technique Used in Tooth Supported Full Mouth Rehabilitation - A Retrospective Study

DR.M.SAI TEJA REDDY; DR.NABEEL AHMED; DR.KEERTHI SASANKA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 451-458
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.056

The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the type of impression technique used by various dental students. A total of 98 data entries were taken, duplicate and missing entries were omitted. So a total of 63 entries were evaluated. The data was collected from patient records in Saveetha Dental College, over a period of one year. . The evaluation was based on the type of  impression technique used by various dental students. The results of the study were subjected to statistical analysis. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 23.0.  Chi-square test and frequency evaluation was done to evaluate the most frequently used impression technique in FMR. It was found that more than 92% of dental students preferred to use double stage putty wash technique with a (P-value - .743) The present study concluded that most of the dental students preferred to use double stage putty wash impression technique for their dental treatment

Retrospective Study on Amount of Local Anaesthesia Used in Extraction of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction Based on Winters Classification

ASHFAQ AHMED.M; PRADEEP D; S.P.SARAVANA DINESH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 459-465
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.057

Local anaesthesia are most commonly used drugs in dentistry. The required dose of local anaesthesia is based on factors like age, weight, systemic illness etc. Failure to administer the right amount may lead to adverse effects. Mandibular third molar is a common tooth to get impacted and due to which discomfort,pain and also caries in adjacent teeth occurs.Thus the aim of the study is to determine the amount of local anesthesia used in extraction of mandibular third molar. Evaluation of 634 patients reported to saveetha dental college for extraction of mandibular third molar. Data was collected from dental archiving software and the results were statistically analysed. From the results obtained, we can observe that impactions which use 0-2ml of local anaesthesia are mesioangular(28.01%), Distoangular impaction (8.79%), Horizontal impaction(21.01%), vertical impaction (6.35%), and impactions which use 3-5 ml are mesioangular(12.87%), Distoangular impaction (5.37%), Horizontal impaction(12.21%), vertical impaction (3.58%) and impactions which use 6-10 ml are mesioangular(1.30%), vertical impaction (0.33%) and the type of impaction which uses more amount of local anaesthesia was found to be mesioangular impaction but the results obtained are found to be statistically not significant(p>0.05). According to the age distribution, patients who use 0-2 ml of local anaesthesia belong to the age group of 17-25 years (23.78%), 26-35 years(28.50%), 36-45 years(8.41%), 45-65 years(3.75%) and patients who use 3-5ml of local anaesthesia  belong to the age group of 17-25 years (12.87%), 26-35 years(15.64%), 36-45 years(4.56%), 45-65 years(0.98%) and the patients of age group 17-25 years use maximum dose of local anaesthesia but the results obtained are statistically  insignificant (p>0.05). Within the limits of the study, we can conclude that mesioangular impaction is the common impaction that uses a maximum dose of 6-10 ml and age groups of 26-35 years use more LA upto 5ml and ages 17-25 years use a maximum of 6-10 ml.

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Minimal Invasive Dentistry Among General Dental Practitioners in Tamil Nadu

RESHMI. B; DR.D.SRI SAKTHI; DR.ARVIND. S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 466-475
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.058

Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) is a treatment philosophy that emphasizes the protection of existing tooth  structure. It has been incorporated  in dental curricula world wide in the management of dental caries. There is limited evidence that , whether the familiarity with MID principles inhibited  through the curriculum is translated into clinical decision making and practice. The study was conducted to assess the knowledge,attitude,practice of general dental practitioners towards MID, registered dental practitioners in chennai formed the sampling frame.  The data was analyzed using SPSS software and chi square tests  were done between knowledge and attitude scores, knowledge scores and gender . 44.4% had good knowledge and 37.9% had good attitudes towards MID.  General practitioners who had  5 to 10 years of clinical experience had 47.8% knowledge. Males had 39.1% good practice while females had 60.9% good practice . More of MID must be put into practice in the dental curriculum and implementing them during their clinical practice would ensure the proper knowledge and practice of dentists in future.

Association of Arch Forms in Class Ii Malocclusions - A Retrospective study

NURUL HUSNIYAH CHE SOH; RAVINDRA JAIN; ARTHI B

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 476-486
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.059

The vertical proportions of the face are significant in determining the esthetics and harmony of the face. Dental arch form is a reflection of underlying bone morphology, size and its shape. Correct identification of a patient's arch form is an important aspect to achieve a stable, functional and esthetic orthodontic treatment result. To evaluate the maxillary and mandibular dental arch forms in class II malocclusion. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the patient records from a dental hospital from June 2019 until March 2020. Patients diagnosed with class II malocclusion were selected and evaluated for its association with dental arch form. Data was collected and then subjected to statistical analysis. Statistical analysis: Microsoft Excel 2016 data spreadsheet was used to collect data and later exported to the SPSS software. Among 308 individuals diagnosed with class II malocclusion, ovoid arch form was the most frequent dental arch form found in both maxillary and mandibular arches. Broad and narrow arch forms showed nearly equal distributions in both arches among males and females. Within the limitation of our study, ovoid arch form seems to be the most prevalent arch form in Class II malocclusions subjects

Prevalence of Malocclusion and Its Relationship with Deleterious Oral Habits Among 18-25 Years Old Adults Attending A Private Dental College- A Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study

AMANTHI GANAPATHI; JAYASHRI PRABAKAR; M. JEEVITHA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 487-497
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.060

Abnormal oral habit could alter a normal growth of oro-facial structure and alo related to malocclusion which is caused by various reasons such as unusual repetitive behaviours in oral cavity To evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with deleterious oral habits in adults from 18-25 years old. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion and its association with deleterious oral habits in adults, from 18-25years old in south Indian population. Case sheets of 158 patients were evaluated for adverse oral habits and malocclusion. The collected information from the case sheet of the patients was entered in Microsoft Excel 2012.Descriptive statistics were expressed by means of frequency and percentage and Chi-square test was used to find the association between Independent variables (Age and Gender) and Deleterious Oral Habits. Level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Total sample size n=158,out of which patients with biting habits-52.91%,Tongue thrusting-25.58%,Mouth breathing-15.82%,Lip biting-8.86%,Thumb sucking-6.33%,biting and lip biting-3.80%,Tongue thrusting and lip biting-3.80%,Thumb sucking biting, Thumb sucking and  mouth breathing-0.63%. In conclusion, the majority of the study population had a biting habit and Angle’s class I malocclusion and also found  that there was no relationship between Malocclusion and deleterious oral habits among the study subjects enrolled in the present study. 

Influence of Parents’ Educational and Socio-Economic Status on Dental Health of Children Among South Indian Population

NILESH SURESH; NAVEEN KUMAR M

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 498-506
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.061

In the modern era where both parents are employed, there seems to be limited focus on the dietary habits and dental health of their children. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the parental influence and family characteristics on the prevalence of dental caries among children who reported to the department of Orthodontics aged 10-17 years from Chennai. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out on 250  children aged 10 years to 17 years. The data was retrieved from the subjects records provided by the institution which consisted of information on their dental caries status. Structured questionnaires were given to parents to collect information regarding their socio-environmental and family characteristics. Student's t-test on metric parameters and Chi-square/Fisher for study parameters between two or more groups were used. It was observed that in  families where the average monthly income >10,000/-, decayed, missing, and filled teeth was proportionately lower. The socioeconomic status, which is primarily influenced by parental factors and family structure, have a definite role in dental needs of children from underprivileged backgrounds. Dental health programs should aim to reduce the gross inequalities in the oral health status of these children and their families.

Analysis of Partial Edentulism Of Kennedy’s Class I Classification Based on Gender and Arch- A Retrospective study

MOHAMAD BIN MOHAMAD RASIDI; KIRAN PANDURANGAN; DINESH PRABU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 507-513
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.062

A partially edentulous arches classification helps in identifying the teeth combinations, better communication and planning a good treatment. Kennedy’s classification will provide immediate prosthesis support recognition, visualization of risk, and design assessment that needed for a partial denture that will be fabricated. Therefore, this purpose of this study is to evaluate the partial edentulism of Kennedy’s Class I based on gender and arch. An institution based retrospective study was conducted among partial edentulism patients who visited Private Dental Hospital, Chennai. Data collection was  obtained by reviewing 86,000 patients records between June 2019 and March 2020. The study was done in 103 patients among gender and arch by doing clinical examination for evaluating the partial edentulism of Kennedy’s Class I. The data were collected and tabulated in excel sheets which were imported to SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to determine the correlation between the variables. In this present study, out of 103 patients, partial edentulism of Kennedy’s Class I is more common in males(56%) than females and the most common arch was found to be mandibular arch (52%). This study result concludes that there is no association between the gender and arches for patients with Kennedy’s Class I partial edentulism (p>0.05).

Association between Gender and Plaque Index- A Retrospective analysis of 86,000 patient records over nine months

VAISHALI. S; ARTHI BALASUBRAMANIAM; REVATHI DURAISAMY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 514-520
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.063

Dental plaque is the community of microorganisms found on a tooth surface as a biofilm, embedded in a matrix of polymers of host and bacterial origin. If not removed regularly, the biofilm undergoes maturation and the resulting pathogenic bacterial complex can lead to dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Dental plaque is seen in both genders and it depends on each individual’s oral hygiene maintenance, which prevents progression of disease such as gingivitis and periodontitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association of gender with the amount of plaque. Retrospective study was conducted using patient records of University hospital. Consecutive case sheets with plaque index records were retrieved. Data was entered in excel and coded, then imported to SPSS. Descriptive statistics and Peasron’s chi square association tests were done. The results were represented in the form of stacked bars.  In this study, it was observed that out of 1152 patients, 51% were males and 49% were females. In relation to distribution of plaque index interpretation, out of 1152 patients, 41.44% had good plaque index scores, 33.45% had fair plaque index scores and 25.11% had poor plaque index scores.Plaque index was good for males (22.59%) than females (18.85%). There was no statistically significant association found between gender and amount of plaque (Chi square test=5.266,p= 0.621). Amount of plaque accumulation is more in females with no association between gender and plaque index.

Assessment of Gender Based Difference in Occurrence of Periodontal Diseases: A Retrospective Study

PALAK SHAH; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; MANJARI CHAUDHARY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 521-526
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.064

Gingivitis is defined as the inflammation of the soft tissues of the oral cavity, without the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition which affects the soft tissues leading to the apical migration of the junctional epithelium. The aim of the study was to assess the gender based difference in the occurrence of periodontal diseases. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 4000 patients were recruited. The study participants were divided into 2 based on gender (Group 1 - 2000 males, Group 2 - 2000 females). Data regarding the periodontal status of the patients were collected from their records. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. Prevalence of periodontitis was higher among males (31.08%) when compared to females (27.28%). Prevalence of gingivitis was higher in females (22.73%) when compared to males (18.93%). There was a statistically  significant association between the gender and periodontal disease (p<0.05). Also, the prevalence of periodontitis was higher among the age group of 56-65 years (19.38%) and gingivitis was higher among the age group of 15-25 years (19.85%). There was a statistically significant association between age and periodontal disease (p<0.05). The finding of the present study showed that prevalence of periodontitis was higher in males when compared to females.

Prevalence of Periodontal Diseases Among Individuals Above 45 Years: A Retrospective Study

GEETHIKA. B; ARVINA RAJASEKAR; MANJARI CHAUDARY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 527-533
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.065

Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation to loss of teeth and supporting structures. The aim of this study was  to assess the periodontal health among individuals above the age of 45 years. This retrospective study was conducted using the case sheets of the patients in a private institution between June 2019 to March 2020. A total of 242 patients were randomly recruited. Data regarding the patient’s periodontal status were collected from the case records and analysed. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software, Version 23. Among the 242 patients, 29 patients (11.96%) exhibited generalised chronic gingivitis, 32 patients (13.22%) exhibited clinically healthy gingiva and 181 patients (74.79%) exhibited generalised chronic periodontitis. Clinically healthy gingiva was highly prevalent(37.5%) among 45-54 year old patients. Generalised chronic periodontitis(27.1%) and generalised chronic gingivitis(31.0%) was highly prevalent among 65-74 year old patients. The association between age and periodontal status was statistically significant(p=0.016) Clinically healthy gingiva(75%), generalised chronic gingivitis(79.3%) and generalised chronic periodontitis(89.3%) were more prevalent among the males. The association between gender and the periodontal health was statistically not significant(p value=0.604).

Online Tools for Teaching and Learning

P.A. VASISHTA; ANITHA ROY; VINAY SIVASWAMY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 534-542
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.066

Learning online is education taking place over the Internet. Among other words it's sometimes referred to as "e-learning. "Online learning, however, is only one form of "distance learning"-the paragliding term for any learning that takes place over distance and not in a typical classroom. e-Learning is defined as a learning system focused on formalised instruction but using online tools. Online teaching usually refers to classes that are conducted exclusively online , meaning physical or on-campus class sessions are not available. A thorough literature search was performed using the database  like Pubmed, google scholar, BioRxiv, MESH , Cochran database using the keywords ‘ online tools’ ,’ teaching’ and  ‘Learning’ with no date and year restrictions. The language is restricted to English. 15 articles with similar data have been found which were analysed and have been included in this study. Mind maps were done using Xmind, Diagrams were drawn using brushes redux app and tabular columns were made using Google documents application. The recent articles discussed in this study help us in gaining further knowledge about assessment of the widely used online tool for learning and teaching. In conclusion, Edmodo, Google classroom are more widely used online tools for learning and teaching because it connects teachers and students and is assimilated into a social network.

Assessment of Furcation Defects in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis - An Institutional Based Retrospective Study

RESHMA THIRUNAVAKARASU; BALAJI GANESH S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 543-554
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.067

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Poorly controlled DM has been associated with increased susceptibility to oral infections including periodontal diseases. It is well documented that one of the main causes of diabetes mellitus is that it leads to periodontal destruction which eventually leads to furcation exposure. This leads to poor prognosis of the affected tooth. Thus the aim of this study is to determine the most common furcation site involved in patients with diabetes. Completed case sheets were collected from June 2019 to April 2020. Data was retrieved and evaluated by 2 reviewers. This university setting study involved 700 sample sizes. Data is tabulated the parameters which are age groups, gender, RBS value and furcation grade. Ranges of RBS values are from 150mg/dl to >551mg/dl. A total of 700 patients case sheets were evaluated and their periodontal status was evaluated. 500 molars were affected (3rd molars exempted). It was found that among all the age groups the most number of participants were seen in 41-60 years (66%). Majority of the affected molars has a grade II furcation involvement (45%). 35.40% had grade I furcation involvement followed by 15.60% of affected teeth with grade III furcation involvement and finally 4% had grade IV furcation involvement. Amongst the teeth with grade I and grade III it was found that 16 was the mostly affected. For grade II furcation involvement it was seen that 46 was mostly affected. Association between grade I, II and III furcation and age groups was statistically insignificant. Finally, 37 was the most affected among the teeth with grade IV furcation involvement. Association between grade IV furcation and age groups was statistically significant (p value=0.006) Thus we can conclude that diabetes mellitus is associated with periodontal disease and in this study it is evident that it involves the furcation area of molars. Diabetic patients are more prone to severe periodontitis with multiple furcation involvement. 

Evaluation of Elastomeric Impression in Fixed Partial Denture-A Retrospective Analysis of Patient Records

G. NITHYA KARPAGAM; VISALAKSHI RAMANATHAN; DINESH PRABU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 555-563
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.068

The aim of this study is to evaluate defects in the impressions made for fixed partial denture prosthesis. For this, patient records of those who underwent replacement of missing teeth with fixed partial denture were collected. A total of 50 fixed partial denture impressions were evaluated. The data collection was done considering the following parameters - impression technique, number of prepared units, defect in the facial margin , defect or cut through finish lines, defect onto the axial wall, defect in material polymerisation, exposure of heavy body through wash material, retraction cord embedded in impression, air bubbles and voids, type of tray used, number of cords preferred. The collected data was tabulated in excel sheet. Statistical analysis was done in SPSS software. This study shows that 90% were double wash impressions, 10% were single wash impressions. About 36% showed defects on the facial margin, 62% showed defective cuts through the 360 degree flash, 38% defect on the axial wall, 38% showed air bubbles and voids. Majority of the impressions were made after packing  two cords. Within the limit of the present study it is concluded that double wash impression technique is the most preferred. The voids and bubbles were the majority of the defects that were present than any other defects.

Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Usage in Reduction of Pain Following the Surgical Extraction of Mandibular Third Molars

HARINI G; DR.DINESH PRABU; DR.BALAKRISHNAN R N

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 564-570
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.069

The aim of the article is to evaluate the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin (proteolytic enzyme ) on pain and swelling after the surgical removal of mandibular third molar. A prospective randomised clinical study was conducted among 30 patients requiring the surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars. All the impacted molars were surgically removed and the patients were administered trypsin and chymotrypsin orally along with amoxicillin. The postoperative pain was assessed on 3rd and 7th consecutive days after extraction. 30 patients requiring the extraction of mandibular third molars were taken in this study.16 patients are male and 14 patients are females. There was the reduction in pain post operatively. The comparison was taken between 3rd and 7th postoperative days. Chymoral Forte can be used as a successful oral enzyme therapy for oral surgery patients, especially after the removal of impacted third molars.

Association Between Age and Gender of Patients Underwent Tooth Whitening procedure

YASHILA PERIYASAMY; DEEPAK SELVAM; SUBHASHINI CHANDRASEKAR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 571-579
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.070

Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public and the public has come to demand more whiter teeth, and a perfect smile. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and in-office based highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. The aim of the study is to find the association between age and gender of patients undergoing tooth whitening. A total of 89000 cases were reviewed between June 2019 to March 2020 for teeth whitening procedure. A sample size of 30 case sheets were reviewed and data was analysed using SPSS software. The results were represented in the form of graphs. Chi Square was done to find the association between age and gender of patients who had undergone tooth whitening procedure and association was found to be statistically not significant (p>0.05). However there the association between the age and gender of the patient and type of bleaching procedure was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). There are various treatment modalities available for tooth whitening. Dentists should educate patients about the benefits and risks of different whitening methods based on the current research and to suggest the best treatment option based on a correct diagnosis.

Human Genetic Variations Associated with Periodontitis- A Mini Review

NANCY SELVAMARY V; VIJAYASHREE PRIYADHARSINI J; SMILINE GIRIJA AS

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 580-586
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.071

Periodontitis (PD) is a complex, multifactorial disease which involves participation of microbial and host factors. Microbes activate inflammatory response in the host which stimulates the periodontal cells to secrete metalloproteinases and other proteolytic enzymes eventually resulting in the tissue destruction and bone resorption. Numerous experimental reports have gathered information related to the potential biomarkers involved in PD. Genetic component of the host as well as the microorganism has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Human genetic variation is considered to be a susceptibility factor in relation to PD. These variations could make an individual resistant or susceptible to infections caused by the microorganisms. Also, other factors such as food habits, lifestyle, smoking, alcoholism and poor oral hygiene practice can aggravate the disease. The magnitude of the disease PD that a patient develops is due to factors related to the individual’s response to the bacterial colonization. Several inflammatory markers and the genes encoded by them are discussed in the present review. Thus the review provides a general overview of the genes and their proteins in association with different forms of PD.

Assessment of Tooth Mobility in Periodontitis Patients Below the Age Of 35 Years - An Institutional Based Retrospective Study

B.JOHN ROZAR RAJ; BALAJI GANESH.S; NIVEDITHA.M. S

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 587-594
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.072

Tooth mobility is the degree of displacement of the tooth from the socket on the application of force. It is an important clinical feature in the diagnosis of periodontal diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the tooth mobility in periodontitis patients under the age of 35 visiting a private dental institution. This was a retrospective study. Samples were collected from June 2019 to March 2020. Data of the periodontal status of patients visiting a  private dental institution in the age group of 18 to 35 years were collected. Excel tabulation was done and SPSS results were obtained. In this study, it was shown that 1993 patients were diagnosed with periodontal diseases. Among those patients, 1676 patients were diagnosed with localized chronic periodontitis, 302 patients were diagnosed with generalized chronic periodontitis, 10 patients were diagnosed with localized aggressive periodontitis and 5 patients were diagnosed with generalized aggressive periodontitis. Among patients with mobility, 82% had Grade 1 mobility, 13% had Grade 2 mobility and 5% had Grade 3 mobility. From the present study, we can conclude that Grade 1 mobility was seen more in all the age groups when compared to Grade 2 and Grade 3 mobility. It was also found that Grade 1 mobility was predominantly seen in the age group of 25-30 years. The association of tooth mobility in different age groups was found to be statistically significant (p value- 0.023). Grade 1 mobility was more common in male patients. Grade 1 mobility was more common in localized chronic periodontitis patients. The association of tooth mobility with respect to different types of periodontal diseases was found to be statistically significant (p value- 0.004). Localized chronic periodontitis was seen more commonly among all age groups but predominantly in the age group of 25-30 years. The association of different types of periodontal diseases in different age groups was found to be statistically significant (p value- 0.01). Localized chronic periodontitis was seen more commonly in male patients when compared to other types of periodontal diseases. The key to successful management of periodontal disease at younger age patients lies in early diagnosis of the disease and rigorous treatment employing the different treatment modalities followed by meticulous lifelong maintenance therapy.

Prevalence of Midface Fractures-A Retrospective Institution Based study

SOYA XAVIER; ABDUL WAHAB; M. SIVAKUMAR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 595-599
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.073

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of midface fractures among different age groups. A retrospective study was conducted among patients who reported with a history of midface fracture to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during July 2019 - March 2020 . All the datas were obtained from the case records of the patient. Road traffic accidents are the most common cause for midface fractures. Individuals greater than 30 years  were the ones mostly affected by midface fractures . They accounted to about 52% of the total population in the study. Dentoalveolar fracture is the most common fracture of the midface. A total of 23% of cases were reported to have dentoalveolar fractures. Chi Square test was used to find the association between the age and midface fracture. P value of 0.4 was obtained , which was statistically insignificant. From  this small sampled single centre retrospective study it was concluded that midface fractures were mostly contributed by  road traffic accidents in middle aged males.

Prevalence and Gender Distribution of Lower Arch Crowding - A Retrospective study

RUSHABH KAMDAR; NIVETHIGAA B; ARUN M

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 600-606
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.074

Malocclusion is an irregularity or malalignment of teeth. Malocclusion can be either skeletal or dental. Several reasons exist that can result in the malocclusion, of which the most common is the tooth size arch length discrepancy. When the arch development is within the expected size or the size of the tooth is abnormally large, it can result in the crowding. Several other reasons have also been attributed with lower arch crowding. This study was done to assess the prevalence and gender distribution in patients with lower arch crowding. This study was carried out in an institutional setting. Data were collected regarding the lower arch crowding in the population and tabulated in the excel and transferred to statistical software SPSS. Descriptive statistics and chi square tests were done. Out of the total population (41545) , 5602 of them had lower arch crowding either alone or in combination with other malocclusion. Among those with lower arch crowding, 3067 of the males had only crowding and 293 had crowding in association with other malocclusion, whereas 1951 of the females had only lower arch crowding and 291 of them had crowding in association with other malocclusions. From the present study, we can conclude that the prevalence of crowding is relatively high(13.48%) compared to any other malocclusion. Higher male predilection in the study sample and more number of cases with crowding as the only malocclusion was also noted. Gender and age association showed a significant association with more numbers of males especially in the age group of 19-35 years in the study population had crowding.

Prevalence and Severity of Gingivitis Among 19–22-Year-Old Patients Attending Private Dental College, Chennai: A Hospital Based Cross-Sectional Study

PRIADARSINI T; JAYASHRI PRABAKAR; DHANRAJ GANAPTHY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 607-616
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.075

Gingivitis is the most common form of periodontal disease which is considered to be the second most common oral disease affecting more than 75% of the population worldwide. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of gingivitis among 19-22 years old South-Indian population visiting Saveetha dental college , Chennai. This study included the data of 165 patients who visited Saveetha Dental college in the period of June 2019 - March 2020. The required data was collected from the patient records and their Gingival index score was taken into account. Data was entered in Microsoft excel spreadsheet and analysed using IBM SPSS software version 20.O(Armonk, NY: IBM. Corp).Numerical data were presented as mean and standard deviation values. For the test, a p value of <0.05 is to be considered statistically significant.Shapiro Wilks test used to test the normality of the data set.Gingival index scores were continuous variables. Hence, it was presented as mean and standard deviation values. Independent T test was used to find the difference between the different age groups and gender with respect to the mean Gingival index score. Of the 165 people, 109 were male and 56 were female patients of the age group 19-22 years. Gingivitis is found to be more severe in 21-22 year old patients than patients who are 19-20 years old. Also, Gingivitis is highly prevalent in the male population with the mean gingival index score of 1.29 than females.

Occurrence of Additional Canals in Mandibular Lower Anteriors In Between Male and Female Patients

DHINESH KUMAR.S; DEEPAK. S; VISALAKSHI RAMANATHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 617-622
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.076

The endodontic treatment with excellent outcomes depends on the critical identification of the root and its canals anatomy. The successful identification of these anatomies guaranteed the pulp tissue extirpation completely, with efficiency in chemo-mechanical cleaning and shaping. All these lead to the most proper three-dimensionally root canal obturation with the most reliable inert filling. The purpose of this study is to provide clinical data on the presence of additional canals in mandibular anterior teeth among males and females.Patients reported from June 2019 to March 2020 were reviewed. 82000 patient records were reviewed and data related to patients undergone Root canal therapy in mandibular lower anteriors. Data includes age, gender and number of additional canals in lower anteriors. The collected data was tabulated in the excel sheet. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software (version 9.0.3). The prevalence of patients with additional canals in mandibular anteriors  was 8.1% . For females, the prevalence of additional canals was 3.24%  whereas in males it is 4.86%. However,  there is no relation between the gender and presence of additional canals in mandibular anteriors.

Association Between Smoking and Oral Lichen Planus in Males - A Retrospective study

PADMAHARISH V; JAIGANESH RAMAMURTHY; DEEPA GURUNATHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 623-632
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.077

Oral lichen planus affects one to two percent of the general adult population and is the most common non‐infectious oral mucosal disease. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of OLP malignant transformation as cigarette smoke contains substances that induce chronic inflammation at mucosal surfaces. The aim of this study was to assess the association between smoking and oral lichen planus in males. A retrospective study was conducted using the case records of patients visiting a private dental college in Chennai from June 2019 - March 2020. The study population included case records of male patients with oral lichen planus, selected by non-probability purposive sampling. Data regarding their smoking habit were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were done using SPSS software. Among the study population, 43.59% of patients were below 40 years and 56.41% were above 40 years of age. About 53.8% of male patients with oral lichen planus had a smoking habit. Erosive lichen planus was the most common variant followed by the reticular type.Within the limits of the study, there was a significant association between smoking and oral lichen planus in males, with an increased incidence of erosive lichen planus among smokers.

Prevalence of Class Iii Malocclusion in Permanent Dentition - A Retrospective study

S.S. SHIVANNI; ARVIND S; DR. R N

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 633-639
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.078

The prevalence of malocclusion varies greatly among different race, ethnicity and geographic locations. Knowledge about the prevalence of malocclusion among the population helps in the early diagnosis and to provide a customized treatment plan for that population. The main aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of  class III malocclusion in permanent dentition.  The data were collected by analyzing the records of 86000 patients between June 2019-March 2020. The study includes 37756 patients above the age of 12 years in their permanent dentition who reported to the University in Chennai. The results were analysed and graphs were tabulated using SPSS software. Out of the total patients assessed, 365 patients (0.96%) had class III malocclusion among which 242  were males and 123 were females. It was further found that among the 365 patients, prevalence of class III malocclusion was 75.34% and class III subdivision was 24.66%. Chi square test done between type of malocclusion and gender was found to be insignificant with P value of 0.933. Within the limitations of the study, it was found that prevalence of class III malocclusion was less in our population with no significant difference in distribution among males and females.

Assessment of ratio of parents preferring general anesthesia in treating children more than 5 years indicated for full mouth rehabilitation

JERUSHA PACKYANATHAN; EMG SUBRAMANIAN; GANESH JEEVANANDAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 640-648
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.079

When it comes to pediatric patients, the challenge is greater in terms of compliance of the patient, as patient satisfaction is directly related to quality of care while efficiently managing the fear and anxiety of the child. Sometimes, children require treatment for dental caries to be carried out under general anaesthetic (GA) in a hospital setting. Many parents view DGA (Dental general anaesthesia) as an acceptable and often convenient method of treatment to address their child’s oral health needs. The aim of this study was to evaluate parent’s preference for general or local anesthesia in their children’s dental treatments. This was a retrospective study conducted by evaluating data of 1005 patients who underwent invasive treatments in a private dental college between June 2019 to March 2020. To fulfil the inclusion criteria, patients between the age group of 1-17 years (pediatric patients) should have been provided with dental treatment like pulpectomy, SS crowns or strip crowns or FMR etc. The coding was done in MS excel. The data was transferred to a host computer and processed using SPSS software version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) by tabulation and graphical illustration. Descriptive statistics was used to study the data collected and to analyse frequency and percentage distribution. Chi square test was used to assess association at 5% significance level (P< 0.05). The results showed that within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that strong association is seen between age and preference for full mouth rehabilitation under GA. There is however no significant association between gender and preference for full mouth rehabilitation under GA. Of those who underwent FMR under GA, 80% were male and 51% belonged to the 5 years and above age group showing a new trend where  patients above 5 years are increasingly opting for treatment under GA.

Incidence of Maxillofacial Injury Among Patients Reporting to Private Dental College: A Retrospective Study

DYNA ALBERT; MR MUTHUSEKHAR; KATHIRAVAN SELVARASU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 649-657
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.080

Maxillofacial injury often results in mortality and morbidity related to functional and esthetic compromise. In developing countries, the greatest threat to sustaining these injuries is in road traffic accidents. It is estimated that 1.3 lakh people end up in fatal death each year due to RTA. The aim of the study is to analyse the age and gender distribution of maxillofacial injuries and to find any association between the etiology of injury with age and gender. This retrospective observational study was conducted among patients reporting to the Department of oral and maxillofacial surgery in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai. Exclusion criteria was patients reporting fractures associated/ secondary to other pathologies (local or systemic), patients with debilitating systemic disease, mentally and physically challenged, patients with head or cervical spine injury. The study data were retrieved from DIAS and analysed in IBM SPSS using descriptive statistics. Among 77 samples included in the study, 85.7% were males and 14.3% were females. Maxillofacial injury was more commonly seen in the 3rd decade of life (35.1%). There was no significant association between etiology and gender and etiology and age. Maxillofacial injury is more prevalent in males in their 3rd decade of life.

Correlation of Lip Shape and Type of Smile in The Perception of Aesthetics in Patients Between18-30 Years - A Photographic Study

SHA.S. HARIHARANA; SUBHASHREE R; RAKSHAGAN V

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 658-666
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.081

Smile is characterised by upward curving of the corners of the mouth, indicates pleasure and plays an important role in social interactions. The study was done to assess the relation between the shape of lips, type of smile and their effect in the perception of aesthetic between the age group of 18-30 years.The study was designed to be a photographic analysis of smiles of 70 subjects between 18-30 years. The study was done in Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, India during the time frame of March-April 2020. The study analysed the type of smile, the shape of the lips and the smile line and its influence on the smile esthetics. An esthetic score was given to the patient on a score from 1-5, five being excellent and 1 being poor. These results were correlated to understand their influence on each other. Descriptive statistics was used to measure frequency and Pearson’s correlation  was performed to analyse the correlation. Moderately arched lips(53%), medium smile line(66.7%) and both Cuspid and commissural type(40%) of smile showed association with the highest grade of smile esthetics. There is a negligible  correlation between smile line and esthetic score, low positive correlation of type of smile with the perceived esthetics, and negative correlation between shape of smile and esthetics (-0.22). The esthetics of smile depends on the peri oral structures as much as it depends on the teeth and associated structures.Development of an index to incorporate the aspects of lips and face in the quantification of esthetic score would best enable to obtain a wholesome picture and also allows standardised comparisons. Further research is encouraged.

Novel Tumour Suppressor Genes Implicated In Oral Cancer

MADHUMITHAA S; VIJAYASHREE J; DEVARAJ EZHILARASAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 667-673
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.082

The cancer of oral cavity is the most prevalent with a recorded incidence rate higher in male than in females. In India, oral and nasopharyngeal carcinomas comprise upto half of all malignancies. The influence of carcinogens and region specific epidemiological factors like tobacco, betel leaf and quid chiming, makes it more aggressive and resistant to treatment. Tumour suppressor genes (TSG's) are genes that prevent cells from acquiring malignant characteristics. The aim of this study is to give a brief review on the novel tumour suppressor genes implicated in oral cancer in the last decade. A review with recent information about tumour suppressor genes in association with oral cancer and its role was derived from various sources such as Medline, Google scholar, MESH, Cochrane etc. Novel genes and signalling pathways have been implicated in the process of tumorigenesis in the last few years. The reports and studies discussed in this review would help in gaining knowledge about the role of tumor suppressor genes in oral cancer. A more comprehensive knowledge on the pathways will enable us to choose candidate genes as targets of therapy.

The Effects of Work - Life Balance on the Academic employees’ Performance, Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Private and Public Universities of Kurdistan Region

ROZHY SABIR; DR.FATIH CURA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 674-678
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.083

The purpose of this study investigates the effects of work - life Balance on the academic employees’ performance, motivation and job satisfaction among private and public universities of Kurdistan Region. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used to obtain empirical outcomes. The questionnaires were distributed to the 396 participants among public and private universities in KRG. The results indicate that the employees of the academic world do face challenges of work-life balance in their careers. These challenges are more difficult on the private university employees than the public employees, and the public employees enjoy a fairly better degree of work-life balance than the private universities, even though the rate of the work-life balance culture within the public universities is not at an acceptable level.

A comparative study of cost approach on implementation of HRA system in India and Kurdistan region of Iraq – A special reference to process industry.

DR.NAVULUR SURARCHITH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 679-683
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.084

The current study focused on understanding human resource accounting practices of India and Kurdistan region in the process industry. The companies chosen for the current study are Cement Corporation of India Ltd., India and Al Mansoori Petroleum Services Ltd., Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Researcher observed the impact of various cost approaches on implementing Human Resource Accounting systems. The data was collected by constructing a questionnaire and distributed to respondents in two organizations. For the purpose of the data analysis and testing of hypothesis, 570 (386 from Cement Corporation Limited and 184 from Al Mansoori Petroleum Services Limited) have been considered for general evaluation. 46 (26 from CCI and 20 from AMPS) from the above lot has been taken separately confined only to the employees of HR & Finance departments considered for the evaluation. The valuation methods i.e. Historical Cost of Acquisition, Replacement Cost, Standard Cost, Present Value of Future Earnings and Discounted present value of future earnings have significant influence on HRA implementation.

Effect Of Employees’ Attitude Towards ERP Post Implementation On Support Of Top Management And Business Performance – A Study Of Critical Success Factors On Post Implementation Of ERP Systems Among It Industries In India

DR.ROOPAL SHRIVASTAVA; DR.NAVULUR SURARCHITH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 684-689
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.085

The aim of current research is to examine critical success factor which is impact of employee’s attitude towards post implementation on support of top management as well as business performance. The respondents for the current study were employees of IT industries in India who are working under ERP platform. Researcher formulated two research objectives and two research hypotheses and the sample size for the current study was 187. The researcher formulated one predictor variable being employee’s attitude towards ERP post implementation and two predicted variables as support of top management and business performance. The impact between predictor variable and predicted variables were weak, positive and significant. The impact of employee’s attitude towards ERP post implementation is more on support of top management than business performance.  Organizations under information technology may focus more on business performance than support of top management as one of critical successful factors in post ERP implementation.

Effect of substantial competent team on training after ERP implementation, continual system improvement, department related to decision support and business performance- A study of critical success factors on implementation of ERP systems among process industries.

DR. SHRIVASTAVA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 690-698
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.086

The current research focused on estimating critical success factors that are substantial competent team, training after ERP implementation, continual system improvement, department related to decision support and business performance. The respondents chosen for the current research were employees of process industries in India who are working under ERP platform. Researcher formulated four research objectives and four research hypotheses and the sample size for the current study was 139. The researcher formulated one predictor variable being substantial competent team and three predicted variables as training after ERP implementation, continual system improvement, department related to decision support and business performance. The impact between predictor variable and predicted variables were positive and significant except substantial competent team and continual system improvement which were negative but significant. Organizations may concentrate more on continual system improvement as critical success factor to increase productivity after implementation of ERP systems at department level.

A comparative study related to effect of Human resource information systems on implementation of HRA system in India and Kurdistan region of Iraq.

DR.NAVULUR SURARCHITH; DR.ROOPAL SHRIVASTAVA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 699-703
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.087

The present research concentrated on acknowledging practices related to Human Resource Accounting in India and Kurdistan region under process oriented industry. The organizations selected for the present research are Al Mansoori Petroleum Services Ltd., Kurdistan Region of Iraq and Cement Corporation of India Ltd., India. Observations made by the researcher were to check the effect of Human Resource Information System on implementing Human Resource Accounting systems. The data was collected by constructing a questionnaire and distributed to respondents in two organizations. The study was conducted with a sample size 570 (386 from Cement Corporation Limited and 184 from Al Mansoori Petroleum Services Limited) have been considered for general evaluation. 46 (26 from CCI and 20 from AMPS) from the above lot has been taken separately confined only to the employees of HR & Finance departments considered for the evaluation. The results depict that Human Resource Information System has a significant influence on implementing HRA System.

IS-LM curve in the 2000-2020 period: Some recommendations on macroeconomic policies and digital economic development in Vietnam

PHAM KHANH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 704-717
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.088

The socio-economic development strategy for the 2021-2030 period with a vision to 2045 requires the proactive and flexible governance of the Government, especially in macroeconomic executives and digital economic development policies.   The IS-LM model is one of the many approaches of economists in research to make recommendations on economic policies and governance of Governments.
The following research focuses on developing and analyzing the IS-LM curve in the 2000-2020 period of Vietnam to serve as a basis for recommendations and contribute to creating a scientific basis for the macroeconomic executives of the Government.  The research results help to point out recommendations related to the direction to operate monetary policy, financial policy and priorities related to sectors / areas that support digital transformation, the development of the digital economy of Vietnam in the coming years.

Concepts, explanation theories, standards and guidelines on corporate social responsibility: Overview of research and contact with Vietnam

BUI HANG

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 718-730
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.089

In a developing country like Vietnam, businesses are, in many different ways, making an effort to integrate into the international business community. To achieve this purpose, one of the main strategies is to carry out CSR. Based on content analysis and statistical methods, the study systematically reviewed the existing literature indexed in Google Scholar, Google, and the library. The research's primary goal is to provide a theoretical basis for scholars, especially Vietnamese ones, to reasonably design CSR measurement indicators for future quantitative research. As a result, the paper presented CSR concepts that stand out from each historical period, moreover, placed in connection with theories explaining whether incorporations should engage in CSR activities or not. Besides, the paper introduces a range of international CSR standards and guidelines, with an emphasis on GRI and ISO26000. From the perspective of Vietnam, this country's government also applied ISO 26000 to develop its national standards on CSR. Vietnamese enterprises can also consult GRI to implement CSR activities as well as prepare sustainability reports. They must comply with legal provisions on CSR information disclosure and refer to Vietnamese guidelines such as the Corporate Governance Principles, the Corporate Sustainable Index 2020.

Managing Better Net Working Capital With Data Assumption from Financial Statements in Manufacturing And Energy Companies- case in Emerging Markets Including Vietnam

HOANG HANH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 731-735
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.090

In emerging markets in Asia including Vietnam, environment protection has been becoming meaningful in the context of global warming. There area huge number of used tires in region every year; so, pyrolysis firms have updated new technology to solve this environmental issue.
That’s why it is important for us to consider solutions for better management of net working capital (including inventory for waste tires, for output products such as fuel oil, carbon black, steel). with all data collected from financial statements of energy firms. From financial reports on current business operation, we can  make assumptions for input data of working capital.
Hence, This paper will use statistic methods, together with practical experience in an energy firm case in one of developing countries in Asia, Vietnam.
Finally, we think it is important to suggest some plans for better management of net working capital in this renewable energy  business sector. This is a vital part of financial management mission in the business and in functions  of CFOs and financial accounting team.
JEL classification numbers: G00, G390

Designing an Excellence Pattern for Effective Human Resources in the Oil Industry

ALI ZAHIRI; MALIKEH BEHESHTIFAR; MASOUD POURKIANI; AYYUB SHEIKHI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 736-750
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.091

The purpose of this study was to design an effective human resource excellence model in the oil industry. The statistical population of the study consisted of two groups: the first group consisted of experts familiar with human resources management and the second group included experts in the field of Iranian oil industry. The research method was descriptive-survey. Data collection was done using Human Resources Excellence Questionnaire and Organizational Effectiveness. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21, 17.8.8, MINITAB and LISREL. The results indicate that there is a meaningful relationship between the strategies and dimensions of human resources with the components of effectiveness in the oil industry. There is a meaningful relationship between the processes and its dimensions with the components of effectiveness in the oil industry. There is a meaningful relationship between the empowerment and its dimensions with the components of effectiveness in the oil industry.

Designing a Model for the Strategic Development of Human Resources in Nationwide Judiciaries Using Fuzzy TOPSIS Approach

ELAHEH HASHEMZEHI; MALIKEH BEHESHTIFAR; MOHAMMADAMIN NIKPOUR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 751-761
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.092

The present study was an attempt to design a model for the strategic enhancement of human resources in judiciaries across the country using fuzzy TOPSIS approach. The present research is applied in terms of purpose and exploratory in terms of approach. The Cochran's formula for limited sample populations was used to select samples from the statistical population. Based on this formula, the number of samples was determined as 365 participants and sample members were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. The results of content analysis indicated that the model of strategic enhancement of human resources in nationwide judiciaries is comprised mainly of ninety-eight concepts, eighteen categories and six dimensions. The results demonstrated that the most significant inhibitors are “resistance of organizations to change”, “lack of institutionalization of knowledge concerning management culture in the subsets”, “inappropriate long-term policy for human resources”, “inadequate support for managers”, “reduction in motivational factors among employees”, “weak support from senior managers”, “absence of a proper context for monitoring, refining and training employees”, and “inaccurate definition and improper implementation of support mechanisms”. The results further demonstrated that the most important motivating factors are “explaining the role and position of each employee in advancing the goals of the group”, “creating a context for employee self-control and self-management”, “creating a spirit of cooperation and teamwork” and “establishing a logical relationship with performance results”.

Presenting the proposed model of media soft power components to improve the combat capability of the Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran

SAJJAD FARHANG; MEHRAN SAMADI; ALI HASHI; HAMIDREZA DANA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 762-775
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.093

Due to its sensitive strategic and geopolitical position, the Islamic Republic of Iran is obliged to strengthen the dimensions of its soft power while paying attention to strengthening various aspects of hard power. Iran can use its soft power and achieve the strengthening of its national power when it presents its strategy and strategy as well as its desired values ​​in such a way that it utilizes the components of its power production components from both national and transnational dimensions. Brought. The purpose of this article is to design a model of soft media power in order to improve the combat capability of the Army of the Islamic Republic of Iran using the ground-based approach. In this study, in order to identify the indicators of soft power in promoting the combat capability of the army of the Islamic Republic of Iran, experts' opinions were used. Four basic indicators for soft power were determined, which are in order of priority: Army, changing the rules of the armed forces, parallel armed forces in the country, armed forces of foreign countries) in the media dimension (national media, new media, foreign media, hardware and software facilities) in the cultural dimension (orbital province, God-centered, Basij thinking And then manpower (creativity, participation in organizational decision-making, elites and professors inside the organization, elites and professors outside the organization, training, Q&A sessions, improving organizational communication, improving staff livelihoods).

Perception of police by local in Manipur

DR.MOIRANGTHEM ROSHINI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 776-780
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.094

Police are regarded as the most important job as it helps in guiding us from all the wrong doers. They act as a mirror of the society . They help in reducing the crime rate of the place and also help in bringing justice to the system. They play a major role in reforming the negative vibes to positive vibes for the people and their satisfaction. Manipur , a state in North east of India face end number of issues every day which ultimately lead to solving with police. In this case police need to make a good image and should understanding with people so that they are connected with them.
This paper focus on how police perform their duty to give 100% to the society. Questionnaire were prepared to have direct interaction with the respondents. Tabulation and pie chart were made to analyse the questions in detail.

Enhancing Corporate Management - A Case of Saigon Hanoi Bank in Vietnam Under Impacts of Macro Indicators

TRAN HA; DINH HUY; PHAM ANH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 781-789
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.095

Bank is a special corporation and plays a vital role in economic circulation. In order to achieve sustainable bank management in emerging markets such as Vietnam, this paper measures bank management capabilities in famous model under impacts of both macro internal and external variables during low inflation time 2015-2020 in the country. During covid 19 and US-China commerce war, analyzing these impacts to have a netter management plans are necessary for commercial banks to respond to economic recession and impacts from trade war.
In recent years, research scholars link banking sustainability with CSR and community and environment; however this study takes another macro approach to banking sustainability. This research paper aims to figure out what are recommendations to management better bank performance to respond to fluctuation sin macro conditions under the case of one of big listed Vietnam commercial bank, Saigon Hanoi Bank (SHB) during the low inflation period 2015-2020 with stock price weekly data.
We use an econometric model with Eviews to estimate impacts from 9 macro variables on Beta CAPM. We find out that bank management team need to pay attention to macro contex in which increasing VNIndex and lending rate and Risk free rate. 
Then, one of its major findings is the suggestion of macro and risk management policies for bank and relevant government agencies. Our recommendation can be used for reference in many other developing markets.
JEL classification numbers: M21, M1, G12, G30

The Economic Factors Affecting Family In Modern Vietnamese Society

TRAN THU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 790-794
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.096

Rapid modernization and economic development is accompanied with social changes in Vietnam, including changes in family relations in urban as well as rural areas. Among the changes, cohesion among family members becomes less tight and there is an increasing trend of divorce rate and among main reasons is economic reason and other individual and social causes. Using data from a sample survey conducted in 3 provinces/cities in Viet Nam in 2017, the author focuses on analysis of the factors that affect divorce decisions in modern Vietnamese society, thereby, contributing to mitigate the unwanted impacts of divorce, and to the implementation of Vietnam Family Development Strategy to 2020, vision to 2030.

Measuring Beta Capm In 2 Economic Stages Of Commercial Banks In Vietnam Economy – Case Of Vietcombank And Vietinbank

NGUYEN TRUNG; DINH HUY; NGUYEN THUY; LE NUONG; LE HAC

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 795-799
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.097

Vietcombank (VCB) and Vietinbank (CTG) are two big listed commercial banks in Vietnam banking industry. They are previous state-owned enterprises with big market share in local market.
This paper will use statistic, combined with synthesis, inductive and qualitative analysis to measure and evaluate beta CAPM of these 2 banks in2 special stages of domestic economy: pre-L and post-low (L) inflation time.
Research results show that during 2011-2020 period, most of time, beta CAPM of VCB is higher than those of CTG bank. Statistic chart give us warning that market risk of 2 banks is higher than 1.
Then these analysis can be used for policy implications. Business and banking is still growing so risk management is becoming meaningful for the financial industry.

Leader-Member Exchange as a Moderator of the Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Organization Citizenship Behavior – A case of a multinational hypermarket in Erbil City.

KARWAN H. SHERWANI; ALI NATHEER

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 800-807
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.098

The purpose of this research is to develop a model in which the Leader-member Exchange theory works as a moderator between the Organizational Citizenship Behavior and practices of Transformational Leadership theory.
The sample was made up of 92 from managers and employees of Majid Al Futtaim Carrefour Iraq, which is a UAE-based leading retail company in the Middle East, operating in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The researchers used a quantitative strategy by conducting a questionnaire of 26 items. To analyze the data, the researchers has used four analytical tools, descriptive analysis, normality distribution, reliability analysis, correlation Analysis, and regression Analysis to test the moderator.
In this study, the dependent variable is Organizational Citizenship Behavior, the independent variable is Transformational Leadership, and the moderator is Leader-member Exchange, which is believed to influence the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable.
The findings of the study have evidenced through data analysis and interpretations that Leader-member Exchange as a moderator moderates the relationship between Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors to a full extent. The outcomes also suggest the manager who shows transformational leadership styles and establishes a good relationship with the employees, tends to result in better employee citizenship behavior.

Comparison of Treatment Time of Initial Alignment Between Self Ligating and Conventional System

NILESH SURESH; NAVEEN KUMAR M

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 808-816
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.099

There are various types of brackets available in orthodontics. This retrospective study investigated the difference in clinical efficiency between Damon Q self-ligating brackets (SLB) compared with MBT conventional ligating brackets (CLBs) during tooth alignment in straightwire fixed appliance therapy. Twenty patients (8 males and 12 females), aged between 12 and 25 years, were randomly divided into two groups: 9 patients received the SLB and 11 received the CLB. Upper arch impressions were taken for pre-treatment records (T0). A transpalatal arch was soldered to both maxillary first molar bands prior to extraction of the maxillary first premolars, followed by straightwire fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028 inch). A 0.014 inch nickel titanium (NiTi) wire was used as the levelling and aligning archwire. Four monthly reviews were undertaken and impressions of the upper arch were taken at each appointment (T1, T2, T3, and T4). Displacements of the teeth were determined using Little’s irregularity index (LII). Data were analysed using the Mann–Whitney U-test. In the aligning stage, the CLB group showed significantly faster alignment of the teeth compared with the SLB group at the T1–T2 interval (P < 0.05). However, there were no differences at T2–T3, and T3–T4 for either group (P > 0.05). The CLB group showed 93 per cent crowding alleviation compared with 76 per cent for the SLB after 4 months of alignment and levelling. MBT  brackets aligned the teeth faster than Damon Q but only during the first month. There was no difference in efficacy between the two groups in the later 3 weeks. Alleviation of crowding was faster with CLB than with SLB.

Business Process Modeling in Consulting Companies

IRINA KISELEVA; NATALIA SADOVNIKOVA; MIKHAIL KARMANOV; VLADIMIR KUZNETSOV

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 816-822
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.100

The international practice of leading companies indicates that there is no successful development and sound company performance improvement, particularly, in consulting, without a proper strategy as a complex of measures tailored to achieve the set goal. The relevance of this paper lies in that all business operations are fraught with risks and thus require the development and implementation of a strategy for the consulting company within the scope of various business units.
Businesses face intense competition. Adequate decision-making requires in-depth comprehensive assessments of the situation and reliable forecasting. The main stages of strategy formulation of a consulting company are determined; strategic alternatives are identified; measures to evaluate strategic follow-up are drawn; examples of strategy development in a consulting company are provided.
The objective of this paper is to analyse strategy development processes at consulting companies. The object is consulting companies and their business models.

Media, Politics and Public Relations; Context of An Investigation: Trnc AND Turkey

MUSTAFA CELIK; SAIT CELIK; SINEM KASIMOGLU

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 823-832
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.101

It is a well known incontrovertible fact that the media, which is defined because the biquadrate after the legislative, executive and judicial powers within the development of democracy, acts as a bridge between politics and society with all its traditional and new elements. The media, which has been interacting with politics since the primary moment of its emergence, is beyond being an influence that directs individuals in almost every area of life; It also plays a fundamental role in determining the political agenda and evaluating the political leaders. during this study, today's media, which has become an increasing force gradually effect, their impact on the connection between popular opinion and therefore the political establishment, which has similar social and cultural characteristics of Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic (TRNC) and Turkey society by examining especially, are evaluated. press screening publication and review of the literature conducted in Turkey, the media, said that their actions and news during a fairly wide audience of no simpler within the orientation of replacing or convictions. If a smaller scale within the TRNC with transmission power of the media that the overwhelming majority of publications for his or her own political opinion, compared to Turkey media about changing the orientation and convictions popular opinion are often expressed as less effective.

Analysis of Biological Factors Affecting the Improvement of Health Accounting from the Perspective of Monetary Disorders

DARIUSH GHASEMABAD; SINA KHERADYAR; FAZEL NODEH; EBRAHIM CHIRANI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 833-841
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.102

The present study investigates the relationship between intrinsic factors and monetary disorders for the first time in Iran. The statistical population is the banks that are members of the Tehran Stock Exchange. The sample size is based on new methods of experiments and using Sample Power software and according to the type of research relationship hypothesis which is a combination of two scale variables but abnormal, Spearman test has been used. The first hypothesis of the study based on the relationship between two variables of financial risk tolerance and monetary disorders, showed that there is a significant relationship between the variables of financial risk tolerance and monetary disorders and there is a positive and moderate relationship between variables and the first hypothesis was accepted. Moreover, based on the results, the second hypothesis has a significant relationship between the variables of financial anxiety and monetary disorders, which shows a positive and moderate relationship between the variables. The second hypothesis was accepted and finally the third test showed that there is no significant relationship between monetary outcomes variables and monetary disorders and the third hypothesis of the research was not accepted. Therefore, based on the inherent origin of the variables of financial risk tolerance and financial anxiety, it has a positive and significant relationship with monetary disorders.

Investigating the Relationship between Manager and Shareholder Using game theory: Applying Accounting Conservatism and Financial Reporting Quality

YOUSEF SAFFAR; FAZEL NODEH; FARZIN REZAEI; MEHRDAD SADRARA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 842-856
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.103

The decision-making of managers in today's organizations is crucial due to increased complexity of internal and external influential factors and increased competition among organizations. Game theory attempts to model the mathematical behavior of a strategic situation. This situation arises when the success of one side of the game depends on the strategies selected by other side. The present study aims at finding a strategy to maximize the balance interests of managers and shareholders by applying strategic characteristics of accounting information and accounting conservatism.  The statistical population of study included 132 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange during a period of seven years (2012-2018).  The data analysis method is inferential and SPSS software was used to prepare the data and estimate the models. Pooled data model was used to test the research hypotheses.  The results of testing the research hypotheses show that the combination of strategies of manager low reporting quality-shareholder low reporting quality (m1, S1), manager high reporting quality- shareholder high reporting quality (m2, S2), manager low conservatism - shareholder low conservatism (m3, S3), manager high conservatism - shareholder high conservatism (m4, s4), were selected as poor Nash equilibrium. The study results show that game theory plays a major role in the relationship between managers and shareholders and finding equilibrium points of game can play an effective role in the decisions of game parties (managers and shareholders). Accordingly, it informs the parties of game of the strategy that has highest utility for them.

Measuring the Quality of Accounting Information in the Face of with Employer Loyalty with Approach PSO Algorithm

ABBAS ZAKIZADEH; SINA KHERADYAR; FAZEL NODEH; AIYOUB MOUSAABAD

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 857-869
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.104

Employer loyalty stems from a positive attitude towards a service that is directly related to the working relationship between the auditor and the Employer. This may be due to a better working relationship with the auditor of your choice or an opportunity to influence the auditor. Managers may seek auditing to approve the method because they do not prepare financial statements in accordance with common accounting principles. In this case, the level of quality of accounting information largely depends on the behavior of managers. The present study tries to optimize the quality of accounting information in the face of customer loyalty by using the algorithm (PSO) in a period of 7 years from 2012 to 2018. The results showed that in each group of loyalty and loyalty of the Employer, the number of characteristics with equal desirable and undesirable levels is equal and in Tehran Stock Exchange, managers, whether loyal to their previous auditor or not, the highest level of importance and desirability can be attributed to the characteristic They give confidence and give the lowest level of relevance.

Acknowledging the Effect of “Affect” in Healthcare: Empirical Investigation of Emotional Labor Practices of Physicians During the COVID-19 Pandemic

SAMAN JAVED; DR NOSHABA BATOOL

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 870-884
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.105

Relevance of Affect or Emotions is paramount in front-line jobs. Especially during times like these with the global spread of COVID-19, both mental and physical well-being of healthcare workers are at stake. Having to face hardships of treatment of infected patients, exhausted resources and fear of infection, doctors and paramedical staff need resolute and emotional composure more than ever. Our research aimed to understand the sequential effect of doctors’ emotional job demands on their emotional labor practices at work, emotional exhaustion and well-being. With data gathered from 332 doctors serving in 11 tertiary hospitals across Pakistan, we found that emotional job demands can lower doctors’ subjective, psychological and physical well-being, if they opt to use surface acting at work. However, showing genuine and natural emotions at workplace helps beat emotional exhaustion, thereby increasing the well-being levels. The study contributes to theory and practice by providing a detailed literary examination of emotions in healthcare context and suggesting ways to combat the adversities associated with the affective part of healthcare profession.

Role of Digital Marketing in Consumer Goods Retailing: Evidence from Vietnam In the Context of the 4th Industrial Revolution

CUONG PHAM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 885-891
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.106

The development of the 4th Industrial revolution has brought many changes in technologies that are set to change the business world. In Vietnam, retailers of consumer products have taken the advantage of the innovation to engage in digital marketing. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate the significance of digital marketing in consumer goods retailing. The hypothesis developed for the research is that there is a certain link between digital marketing and consumer goods industry. To achieve its aim, the study uses quantitative research methodologies where data is collected through online questionnaires. A purposive sample of 580 respondents was used to obtain data. The information gathered was analyzed using Ms. Excel and SPSS packages. The study finds that most respondents knew about online sale of consumer goods through advertising ads on the web. The paper then draws a correlation between knowledge of marketing and the actual buying of goods. It is further established that majority of participants prefer buying goods online because it is convenient and cost-effective. The role of digital marketing in consumer goods retailing is explicitly outlined and linked to research hypothesis. By so doing, the study is said to have met its objective.

Factors Affecting Consumer Goods Buyers’ Choice in E-Commerce Sites: Evidence from Vietnam

CUONG PHAM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 892-898
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.107

The main purpose of this study is to find the factors affecting the consumer goods buyers’ choice on e-commerce sites in Vietnam. By using the quantitative method, the paper examines the theoretical research model and tests four hypotheses. The sample was drawn from the population of e-commerce sites in Vietnam comprising about 1,000 respondents. This study used the questionnaire method to collect primary data to test the hypotheses. Data analysis of the questionnaire was done using SPSS. The results show that there is a correlation between personal preferences of consumers on colors and brands and their actual final choice on e-commerce sites in Vietnam. The most important factor affecting the consumer goods buyers’ choice on e-commerce in Vietnam is the brand of E-commerce site, following by the color and position. Among all educational groups, respondents with a Master degree pay the biggest attention to the site’s color attribute, and those with a Bachelor degree pay more attention to the brand attribute. Women pay much more attention to the location of the products on the screen than men, as do consumers with a PhD degree, over respondents with a Bachelor or Master degree, and foreigners over Vietnamese consumers.

the impact of work feedback on work engagement: evidence from the jordanian faculty members

ROBERT J. HANSON; MANAL TAQATQA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 899-913
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.108

This study examined the impact of work feedback on work engagement of faculty members at Jordanian private universities. The increased turnover and burnout among Jordanian faculty members was the reason for examining such relationship.  A quantitative correlational survey design research method was used to collect data from 112 faculty members who are currently employed at Jordanian private universities utilizing Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) model. Descriptive statistics and correlational frequency were used to answer the research question related to the relationship between the job resources indicators of work feedback, and work engagement. Participants were Jordanian faculty members who are involved in classroom teaching and holders of masters or doctoral degrees. The P-Value was found at a significant level of .000 for each of work feedback on the level of work engagement of faculty members. It was found that by providing work feedback practitioners at Jordanian private universities might increase their faculty members’ level of work engagement and decrease turnover and burnout. Future research recommendations made were to encourage researchers to explore ways that might assist university administrators on improving their techniques and skills related to work feedback to their faculty members.

Differences In Selection And Evaluation Criteria Between Arab Versus Western Expatriates Based On Saudi Hr Managers’ Perception

ROBERT J. HANSON

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 914-927
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.109

Purpose The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences between selection and evaluation criteria among Arab and western expatriates. The employment opportunities are thus the main intention that is found from the perception of the Saudi Arabian HR managers.
Methodology
Deductive research approach has been chosen for the study and also qualitative as well as hermeneutic phenomenology has been applied for dealing with the perception of the HR managers. The interview process is preferred for gathering the perception and this is done with 21 HR managers of Saudi Arabian companies. The data has been analyzed with thematic coding analysis.
Findings
Based on the gathered data from the perception of the HR managers it was found that Western expatriates, they get the better job opportunities from the Arab expatriates as they have more creativity, innovative skills and higher education levels. The management of the Western expatriates is still better than the Arab expatriates. Western expats are getting higher salaries than the Arab expats. However, the small companies select the expats based on their skills and past performances and for the cultural influence, the Arab expats are preferred more.
Originality
Primary data has been gathered from the HR managers’ interview process. Some statistics has been gathered from the internet sources and journals to analyze the difference between Arab and western expatriates.

Gratitude: Building Bridges between Buddhism andPositive Psychology

KHATIB KHAN; WU YANSHENG; DANABEKOVA AIGERIM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 928-932
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.110

Gratitude is considered as a feeling of appreciation a person receives whether material or immaterial. With gratitude, people acknowledge the goodness in their lives which can also be cultivated by continuous practice. Moreover, The teachings of Buddhism considers gratitude as an spiritual practice to attain the ultimate purpose of life. The field of positive psychology and Buddhism share a common belief on nurturing constructive emotions, personal strengths and virtues. The psychological studies on Buddhism have gradually shown an interest in the area of gratitude and related dimensions in the light of Buddhist teachings. Therefore, present paper draws on centuries of Buddhist teachings and the relevant research done in the area of positive psychology to explore the nature of gratitude and its benefits in everyday life

Expatriates Success Factors (Esf) For Increasing Commitment To Assignment In Arab Markets

ROBERT J. HANSON

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 933-952
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.111

Expatriate Success Factors (ESFs) are essential to evaluate expatriate commitment to international assignments. The study aims to identify ESFs that impact expatriate commitment levels;and rank these factors according to their importance. 13 factors were studied, and structured interviews were conducted with 10 experts from different industries. An online survey was distributed to non-Arab expatriates, who were currently working in 22 Arab countries. Valid responses from 5280 expatriates were collected and data was treated using factor loading and statistical analysis.Results indicated that logistical support, compensation, professional development, cultural adjustment, and satisfaction with human resources(HR) procedures are amongst five most important factors impacting expatriates’ commitment to their assignment. This study provides international human resources managers (IHRMs)with areas that must be addressed when locating expatriates abroad. However, further research is needed for non-Arab markets.

Developing vietnam electronic commerce in the period 2020 - 2025

TRAN NGUYEN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 953-966
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.112

Vietnam e-commerce has a miraculous acceleration based on the advantages of a young population, the popularity of smart mobile devices along with the improvement of legal and payment platforms. and logistics. This fact has made Vietnam one of the fastest growing e-commerce markets in Southeast Asia. Not only that, Vietnam e-commerce is forecast to continue to grow rapidly in the period 2020 - 2025 with an annual growth rate of over 30%. However, the most important issue for e-commerce to continue to accelerate as expected and to develop stably is the need to objectively and accurately evaluate the results achieved as well as find out the shortcomings. , explaining the causes of the existing e-commerce market in Vietnam. The article has detailed the current situation of Vietnam e-commerce market, as well as based on statistics and market outlook forecasts of reputable e-commerce research organizations in Vietnam as well as in the world to propose solutions in order to develop e-commerce in Vietnam to a new high level.

Management Strategy for Business Sustainability Under Macro Effects In An Econometric Model – Case of PKN Orlens in Oil and Gas Industry in Poland

TRAN HA; PHAM ANH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 967-971
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.113

The Poland economy has gained lots of achievements esp. in gas and oil industry during the 2014-2019 period and affected by Covid 19 and US-China trade war. Orlens group is a big gas and oil group operating in Central Europe countries such as Germany, Poland, Czech and Lithuania. This paper measures the revenue and EBITDA of a big gas and oil company, PKN Orlens in Poland, under impacts of macro indicators. As we experienced role of business management and sustainable development in gas and oil industry has been increasing with new perspectives in management, corporate governance models.In order to recommend for sustainable business development, this research paper aims to figure out how much effects in revenue from macro indicators of one of big listed Poland firms, PKN Orlens during the period 2014-2019 with semiannual data. Our findings show that revenue are affected much more by exchange rate and lending rate. It implies bank system policies and macro policies.

Strengthen roles of commercial banks in vietnam economy– a case of eximbank

NGUYEN NGON; DINH HUY; TRAN THANG

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 972-975
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.114

Is it the time for us to evaluate roles of Vietnam commercial banks and importance of risk management activities? This paper uses both quantitative analysis with statistical data and charts, combined with qualitative analysis including synthesis, inductive and explanatory methods in order to estimate and compare market risk via beta CAPM of Eximbank (EIB) and Asia Commercial Bank (ACB), 2 big listed joint stock banks in Vietnam. Research findings show us that market risk of Eximbank is higher and increase during post-low (L) inflation stage, compared to pre-L inflation time. Results may be used for policy implications and research models can be references for other countries including emerging markets.

Enhancing financial risk managment in corporation – a case of some vietnam listed banks

TRAN THANG; DINH HUY; NGUYEN HA; DUONG TINH; NGUYEN NGON

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 976-980
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.115

Saigon Hanoi bank (SHB) and Sacombank (STB) are two big listed banks who opened lots of branches and hold big market shares in Vietnam. This paper use quantitative and quantitative methods in order to estimate risks of these two banks and make comparison. Study findings show that market risk, beta CAPM of SHB bank higher than those of STB bank during pre-low (L) inflation stage, but lower during post low inflation time. Based on above results we can propose risk policies for banks, bank system, State bank and relevant agencies.

Financial risk management via evaluating impacts of a six factor model on hoi an tourist holding company stock price and transparency disclosure– a case in tourism industry in Vietnam

DR.TRAN THANG; DINH HUY; LE THI MASTER; NGUYEN THACH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 981-985
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.116

Quang Nam tourism industry recently also affected by Covid 19 and Hoi An Tourism Holding Company (HOT) is one of leader with 15% average growth annually. HOT is much paying attention to social security and create more jobs for local laborers. With the use of qualitative and quantitative analysis in OLS model, we get the results presenting that: stock price of HOT (Hoi An company) is much affected by GDP growth and  CPI, negative correlation. We can propose suitable policies for better managing company stock price volatility and expan our research for other markets.

Women agricultural labourers in rural areas of Ranipettai district – a theoretical assessment

DR.G. YOGANANDHAM

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 986-991
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.117

Women play a significant and crucial role in all spheres of the socio – economic development of any country. The agricultural sector is the largest employer of women. Majority of the women workforce in the rural areas depends upon agricultural sector and its allied activities. farming expansion and related pasture counting, key harvest manufacture, live-stock production, horticulture, post-harvesting operations, agro social forestry, fishing, etc, it is a fact long taken for granted but ignored since era. The huge number of factors economic and non economics is accountable for the trouble of scarcity among the agricultural labourers. Several discussions are going on the problem of women agricultural labourers in the world in general and in the study area in particular. Women as farming labourers are categorize in earnings disbursement on masculinity source.The earnings disparities is in all key agriculture process as well as transfers and prepare in which women serious process along with recovered is inclusive by women agricultural labourers. The women agricultural workers are supplementary to poor on agriculture sector. The comparative deficiency of non-agricultural employment among women labourers is reliable with the argument that women expression restriction to physical mobility and prefer employment near their homes. Women agricultural labourers in the study area suffer from a multiple burden on their time due to their home making, child rearing and income earning each day to day  jobs in arrange to convene the day to day house expenditures. Here this background, this research paper mainly concentrates on women agricultural labourers in rural areas of Ranipettai District an theoretical perspectives.

Measuring citizen's satisfaction when using E-Government online public services: Lessons from Vietnam

NGUYEN THAO; NGUYEN VAN ANH; LE THI HUONG; DINH HUY

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 992-1000
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.118

This study aims to evaluate the factors affecting the satisfaction of citizen when using online public services through data collected from direct surveys of people. Research results show that Quality of online public services, Citizen's awareness, Privacy and security, Trust and accessibility affect citizen's satisfaction when using online public services. Based on these results, the study also gives some discussion and governance implications for researchers as well as policy-makers in improving citizen's satisfaction as well as attracting more users for online public services in Vietnam context.

Implementation of diversion in case resolution children to realize protection law against children

MUHAMMAD LUBIS; GOMGOM SIREGAR

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1001-1006
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.119

The substance of the law of Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Juvenile Criminal Justice System determines that in the settlement of child criminal cases must be carried out diversion by law enforcement officials. The implementation of diversion is carried out at every level of the child criminal justice process. However, in the SPSA Act, not all cases done by children can be implemented diversion. In this case the law determines the limits of the qualifications of crimes that can be carried out diversionary in the settlement of child cases. The problems in this study, concerning the factors that influence the implementation of diversion and how the qualifications of criminal acts committed by children, as well as efforts to protect children in the settlement of child cases through the implementation of diversion. This type of research is empirical normative juridical research, by conducting research at the Medan Resort Police. This research is descriptive analysis, using primary and secondary sources. Data analysis used in this research is qualitative data analysis. The implementation of diversion is influenced by law enforcement factors and the legal culture of the community. From the aspect of law enforcement, human resources law enforcement apparatus still does not support the implementation of diversion through restorative justice approach. In addition, the implementation of diversion is also influenced by the difficulty of reaching a peace agreement between the victim and the perpetrator, due to the attitude of the perpetrator who is less cooperative and the victim or family who demands compensation outside the limits of the perpetrator's ability. The limitation of the qualification of crimes that can be implemented diversion in the child criminal justice system is, the crime is threatened with imprisonment of under 7 (seven) years and is not a repeat of the crime. The implementation of diversion in the resolution of ABH cases through restorative justice approach will provide protection to children. The implementation of diversion in the settlement of ABH cases will prevent children from formal criminal justice proceedings and also prevent children from the bad stigma that arises in the community towards children, as a result of the punishment by the court against the child. 

Juridical analysis of religious blasphemy crimes through smartphone applications based on the information and electronic transactions (ite)

GOMGOM T.P SIREGAR; MUHAMMAD RIDWAN LUBIS

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1006-1012
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.120

The presence of Law No. 11 of 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions as revised by Law No. 19 of 2016 on Amendments to Law No. 11 of 2008 on Information and Electronic Transactions, should be expected to be able to direct Indonesians to be more intelligent in building communication and behaving on social media which is now a new social reality in human civilization in the modernization era. This study aims to find out and analyze about the crime of blasphemy through social media and the application of the law and the impact of the application of the ITE Law law on public legal awareness. This research is normative legal research using case approach, legal approach and conceptual approach. This research is descriptive analytically using qualitative analysis.

Examining the Dimensions of Organizational Climate on Employee’s creativity in Jordanian Hotels

Mohammad Issa Al-Zoubi; Ashraf Mohammad Alfandi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1013-1020
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.121

The objective of this study is to develop and test a conceptual framework which linked the creativity of employees with four organizational climatic factors: the structure, obligation, rewards, and support, as well as the connection between creativity of employees and performance of employees. 432 employees in 18 luxury hotels in Jordan obtained data. The quantitative study is focused on an empirical exploratory factor, a basic linear regression analysis and the validity of the CFA factor solution. Results and recommendations in the study showed that the relationship
between employee creativity and employee success affects the creativity of workers through different organizational factors. This study aims to strengthen the organizational environment and results for hotels in the area of hospitality in order to enhance their organizational climate.

ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EU ECONOMIES

LUIGI PIO LEONARDO CAVALIERE; AHMED FARHAN SAEED; SANAM WAGMA KHATTAK; SUMAIRA YOUSUF KHAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1021-1032
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.122

It is the consensus among many econometrician and environmental economists that Greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, N2O, and O3 are the major source of environmental degradation around the globe. EU economies are also suffering from this problem as other economies of the world. The prime objective of this paper is to analyze and gauge the environmental degradation due to economic activities in EU economies. The time series data (1961 to 2017) of economic growth (GDP per capita) has collected from world development indicator and the data of ecological footprint of consumption per capita is collected from Global Footprint Network. The results of
Johansson Co-integration and Vector Error Correction model confirms the long run and short run association between both the variables. The economic activities are the main reasons of environmental degradation in the EU economies. EU economies should adopts such policies which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions

Assessment of Jordanian High School Students Performances in Computer Subject: Inclusion for Measurements and Evaluation of Learning

Anwar Bani Hani; Rohaya Talib

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1033-1045
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.123

Nowadays, every student is able to use technology in school or at home. Computers have
become a necessary part in schools for the sake of well teaching style. The low levels of
students’ achievement and their computer subject skills weaknesses at the public
examinations in Jordan have continued to draw major stakeholders' attention in education.
This study examined Jordanian high school students' academic achievement in computer
subject, also gender difference in students’ achievement was examined. An ex-post-facto
design of descriptive research was adopted for the study. A preform was used to collect data
from a sample of (200) students who have been selected using a stratified random sampling
procedure from the secondary schools in Jordan/Irbid. The data, which was collected, is the
students’ performances in computer subject achievement tests. The data were analyzed using
descriptive statistics and an independent-sample t-test. Results showed that the test internal
consistency reliability is low; the students performed below average (M=47.02, SD=16.493
(47%).

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES IN MANAGEMENT OF RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN LABOR-INTENSIVE BRANCHES OF INDUSTRY IN UZBEKISTAN

AbdurahmanovaMunovar .; DalievKhusan .

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1046-1052
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.124

At the present stage of strategic development of the Republic of Uzbekistan, the integration issues of education, science and production are acquiring more and more practical significance. Science and technology, constituting an element of the productive forces of society, are one of the basic conditions of social progress, and science becomes in full measure a direct productive force. In this paper, we aim to investigate the effects of organizational structures and learning organization on the integration of education, science and industry contributes to the formation of new social relations. Furthermore, we explore advances in science and technology in a number of industries and methods to characterize the nature of workers' labor.

Relationship between Social Media Marketing and Brand Loyalty with Moderating Effect of Culture: An Evidence from University Students

Dr. Ghulam Nabi; Dr. Nazir Haider Shah; Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheen; Naveeda Zeb; Mr. Abrar Hussain

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1053-1064
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.125

This research aimed to determine the relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty. It also explores the moderating role of culture in the relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty. 177 students from the universities of Pakistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir were selected as a sample for conducting a cross-sectional survey. Self-managed questionnaires were used for data collection and correlation and regression analyses were used to analyze the data. The research results showed a positive impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty. Moreover, culture can alleviate the relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty, which showed that culture had an impact on the use of social media and brand loyalty. The current study will be helpful for the marketers and decision-makers of the brands to make important decisions to increase Brand Loyalty by using Social Media Marketing but keeping in mind the cultural aspects.

Integration Of Environmental Accounts With National Income: A Review Of Literature.

BHARGAV BORUAH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1065-1069
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.130

Environmental accounts bring together economic and environmental information in a common framework for measuring the contribution towards the economy as well as the impact of the economy on the environment. It organize environmental data from different domains by showing the interaction between economic, household and environmental factors, which as a result becomes more informative than national accounts alone. The paper is an attempt to report survey results for framing a better decision by establishing a link between economy and the environmental accounts. This paper is based on certain literature from a limited database.

The Relationship among Overconfidence, Economic Expectation, Social Factors and Investment Decision Making Behavior with the Mediating and Moderating Effects

RIAZ AHMED; SAMINA RIAZ; RAMAISA AQDAS; SYED UL HASSAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1075-1088
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.127

The current study investigates the relationship among the overconfidence (OVC), economic expectations (EE), social factors (SOF) and investment decision making behavior (IDMB) with the mediating and moderating effect. The data was collected from the investors of Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) that were selected through convenience sampling technique. The results of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) showed that OVC, EE, SOF have a positive and significant relationship with IDMB. On the other hand, OVC, EE, SOF also has a positive and significant relationship with the information search (IS) while IS did not have direct effect on the IDMC. In other words, the IS also did not have mediating effect among the relationship of OVC, EE, SOF and IDMB. The indirect effect further indicated that financial literacy (FL) has a significant moderating effect among the relationship of OVC, EE, SOF and IDMC. Therefore, this moderating effect could be considered a contributions of the study. The research limitations and future directions had also discussed at the end of the study.

An Empirical Investigation of Service Quality, Usage and Mobile Banking in Predicting Adaptive Performance: Serial Mediation Model

ABID HUSSAIN; DR.MAJID ALI; DR. NISARAHMAD; DR. KHAN; DR. DANISH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1089-1100
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.128

This study investigates the serial mediation between Service quality and adaptive performance of managers through usage and mobile banking incontextual framework ofSMEs’ enterprises of Pakistan. This study aims to find out how usage and mobile banking sequentially mediate the relationship between Service quality and adaptive performanceof managers at the workplace. This study's target population includes managers or owners of SMEs listed in Chambers of Commerce of Capital cities of Pakistan. As part of the more extensive research, 422 responses were received, which shows a 50% response. To test the hypotheses, structural and measurement models were developed in SEM. The findings show that serial mediation is observed in the case of service quality and adaptive performance as when we measure direct relation in the absence of mediators, it is significant and positive, as well as in the presence of serial mediators (usage and mobile banking) service quality, and adaptive performance is positive and significant. This study's findings will help the academia, banking sector, SMEDA and practitioners understand the importance of service quality, usage of mobile devices and mobile banking on adaptive performance. Future researchers must focus on practical investigation of testing the effect of system quality, information quality and usage of mobile devices, mobile banking to predict managers' adaptive performance by comparing SMEs and large enterprises in Pakistan.

Association of Employees Orientation of Customers and Their Satisfaction in Departmental Stores Around Jaipur City

THAYA MADHAVI; RAJESH MEHROTRA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1101-1107
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.129

A review of study provided by operational level employees is more often depended on their attitude towards customers while dealing with any item of product to be disposed of or sold to the customer. That would obviously speak on the quality of service being provided to the customer. This would remain an important factor to confer sufficient amount of leverage for the success of an organization. This paper particularly emphasize on the static relationship maintained between customer orientation and customer satisfaction on the part of departmental stores employees. A survey has been conducted on 100 employees through questionnaire mode. The results have  predicted positive correlationship between customer satisfaction and customer orientation. This might ultimately lead to retention and customer commitment in the business front.

Religiosity as a Moderator of the Relationship between Personality Trait and Perceived Risk: A Conceptual Framework

DALAL A ALSAHLIY; MAIZAITULAIDAWATI HUSIN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1108-1119
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.126

This paper proposes a conceptual framework that considers religiosity as a moderator of the relationship between personality trait and perceived risk. This paper also examines five dimensions of personality traits in exploring the relationship of personality trait and perceived risk. The review finds that perceived risks towards financial products are affected by personality traits and influence by moderating factor; religiosity. Such an extensive review of examining variouspersonality traits to investigate the consumer perceived risk has not been done before. This paper will be useful to researchers, professionals and others concerned about understanding consumers' perceived risk when introducing new financial products and services.The proposed framework would lead to operational efficiencies through effective marketing strategies and a better understanding of the religiosity andcustomer traits.

An Analysis of Perception and Financial Planning Behaviour for Retirementamong Working Individuals

MS. R; DR. SUDHA

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1120-1130
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.131

Purpose: Although the financial planning for retirement is a complex and multifaceted process for any employed individual, much of the existing research only examines retirement planning in the lines of factors that influence savings for the future, perception of individuals, role of financial planners and also impact of debt level with respect to retirement planning. As the global pandemic storm wreaked havoc in almost every sector of the economy, a more comprehensive understanding on the financial planning for retirement and in particular the discipline of holding on to the plan was considered imperative to be studied. The research also involved understanding the perception of the individuals regarding asset allocation preferred for retired life, priority in terms of financial planning and the impact of various factors affecting the behaviour of adhering to the financial planning for retirement for which Social Cognitive Theory was used as a conceptual base. The empirical study has followed a questionnaire based survey research on employed individuals. Data from 202 participants were analysed using various tools like Descriptive Statistics, Chi Square Analysis, Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance W, Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 20.0. The study revealed that an individual’s financial planning for retirement behaviour is highly influenced by external environmental factors.

Influence of Dairy co-operatives in Rural Development in India: a case study of Banas Dairy, Banaskantha district, Gujarat.

NEETI CHAUDHAR; DR. REDDY MINAMPATI

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1131-1142
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.132

We have traversed a path few have dared to. We  are continuing on a  path still fewer  have the courage tofollow. We must pursue  a path that even fewer can dream  to pursue. Yet we must, because we  hold in trustthe aims and aspirations  of millions of our countrymen. I  am confident – as I know you  are – that with thenation’s dairy farmers  by our side we cannot  fail! Let us therefore  resolve that however fulfilling our  firsttwenty  five years  have been,  in  the next  twenty five  years  we will  transform the  lives  of millions  more,opening for them the door to an India that is the land of our dreams.
Dr. Verghese Kurien
Co-operative is a form of community organization where all the members work together in order to fulfill their common needs. All the members of this organization are obliged to maintain their democratic, participatory and transparent decision making procedure because it is jointly owned, and commonly operated on the value of self-help, mutual help and self- responsibility (National Cooperative Federation Nepal, 2010). The members ofacooperative have a common goal in order to meet their economic, social and cultural needs under the control of joint approach by its own members so that their members are directly responsible for benefiting themselves and ultimately to the society at large. While pricing the milk and milk products co-operatives play an important role. A cooperative is an enterprise owned by and operated for the benefit of those members and users. The dairy co-operatives operated by the farmers often use a complete milk distribution system from the point of procurement to the consumers where it is marketed. Also make a bargaining capacity for the price with the traders. It represents in that level of decision where different rules and regulations are formed. Cooperative also can make the decision to change the marketing system of the product and the nature of product from one to another in order to maintain highest return to the members and users
Now-a-days, Indian dairy industry has to face the global dairy markets. At this point of changing times,Gujarat State is undergoing considerable modernization with latest technology. It will be right to study and analyze the performance of the district co-operative milk unions of Gujarat and its socio economic impact on rural people's livelihood. The present study will focus on performance of co-operative dairy industry of Gujarat State which are engaged in processing and selling of milk and milk products as well as performing the social and welfare programs in the communities they own. For this study, we choose to pick a leading co-operative dairy unit(Banas Dairy) performanceis analyzing co-operative growth and the way the rural community benefited out of it.

A Systematic Review of Literature on Organizational Unlearning and Forgetting

MALKA LIAQUAT; MUHAMMAD HASSAN

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1143-1154
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.133

Purpose – Unlearning has been one of the interesting and debatable construct emerged in studies of organizational behaviour. Discussion on this phenomenon precedes from interdisciplinary realms ranging from psychology to pedagogy approaching towards arena of business studies. Studies often question the applicability of its existence and practical applications. Starting from the base of unlearning this paper attempts to enfolds the multi-foci perspectives associated with unlearning. Aiming to analyse the construct, this paper provides an insight to definitional notions, account of existing stream of work, its unit of analysis at individual and organizational level and finally discussion of routines structured on unlearning perspective.
Design/methodology/approach – A systematic analysis and review is proposed in order to study streams of literature existing on phenomenon existing on unlearning. This systematic review will help in stating various definitional notions of unlearning, identifying the theoretical lenses applied, processes underlying the unlearning mechanism and extent of quantitative and qualitative studies carried out.
Originality/value – As the study is conceptual in its nature, therefore it aims to contribute towards identifying and enhancing the literature of unlearningby identifying gaps and future avenues. Enlightening the applicability of unlearning in multiple sectors it enhances its dimensionality.
Practical implications – Study can be helpful for managers and organizations, as unlearning is rooting from change management, which would provide new revelations for organization as useful tools. Review provides insights to areas which can be useful for future studies.

Investment Behaviour of Individual Investors of Pakistan Stock Market with Moderating Role of Financial Literacy

DR.SAEED AHMAD SABIR; TASAWAR JAVED; SHAHBAZ KHAN; MUHAMMAD JAVED

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1155-1165
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.134

The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of investors’ behaviour in the Pakistan stock market with the moderating role of financial literacy.  The study also explains the mediating mechanism between the attitude of investment, religiosity, social influence and investment behaviour in stocks. This study used quantitative method to test the hypotheses.  The data was collected by using survey approach and self-administrative questionnaire. The data was collected from 250 stock investors through convenience sampling.  This study utilized Partial Least Squares structural equation modelling method (PLS-SEM) to test modelled hypothesis and used the Smart PLS version 2.0 to conduct the analysis. This study found that social influence and religiosity influence investment intention while religiosity doesn’t affect investment behaviour. This study also indicates that relationship of investment intention and investment behaviour of individual investors in stock market was significantly moderated by financial literacy. Moreover, results indicate that intentions to investment significantly mediate between the religiosity and investment in stock. Similarly, intentions to investment significantly mediate between social influence and investment in stock. However, intention to investment doesn’t significantly mediate between attitude toward investment and investment behaviour in stock. This study extends the existing literature, specifically in a Pakistan context and helps the policymaker to develop policies to increase investment in the stock market.

TRAVELERS SATISFACTION AT COVID19 QUARANTINE CENTERS IN SAUDI ARABIA

Dr. Ali Medabesh; Dr. Syed Md. Faisal Ali Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1166-1182
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.135

Background: Due to global pandemic Covid 19 the tourism industry is badly affected. The free
movements of the travelers are restricted due to the high potential of the virus to spread.
Travelers visiting Saudi Arabia kingdom has to spend 14 days in quarantine as per the guidelines
from WHO to stop spreading of the infection. Several hotels and other centers were converted to
quarantine centers for travelers visiting the kingdom from overseas. This research explores the
satisfaction index among the travelers who are quarantined in the different quarantine centers of
Saudi Arabia.
Methods: This study reviews the literature about different guidelines to comply with the
requirements of quarantine centers. A critical examination model and explanatory research
design is used with the statistical conclusion to understand quarantine centers and service
provided. The main objective of this research is to endorse, various factors associated with the
quarantine services and its impact on travelers‟ satisfaction.
Results: The research results show that the effectiveness of services in the quarantine centers
and its significant impact upon the satisfaction level of the tourist.
Implication: The study will help to understand travelers‟ satisfaction index, staying at
quarantine centers.
Conclusion: Travelers are satisfied while staying in the quarantine centers.

The Economic Effects of Coronavirus (COVID-19) on Jordan

Dr. Shadi Arshid Muslim Saraireh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1183-1197
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.136

COVID-19 is observed as a significant economic threat for the economies across the globe. This research paper specifically focuses on the case of Jordon. It evaluates whether COVID-19 crisis has significantly affected the country's economy. Based on the objective, the study applies a quantitative methodology to assess the problem. It assumes stock market performance as a representation of economic performance and examines the impact of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the Jordon's Amman SE General Index price and returns. Considering the sample periods before and during the COVID-19 outbreak, the study finds that the COVID-19 period exhibit both lower index price and index returns at 0.01 level. Similarly, the impact of COVID-19's new cases is significant and negative on the performance of the stock market. Based on the findings, this research recommends to focus on COVID's negative economic implications.

Use of Inter – Sector Approach in Teaching Specialists in Social Science anh Human in Vietnam – From Historical View

Assoc. Prof. Dr. NGUYEN VAN HIEP; Assoc. Prof. Dr. PHAM NGOC TRAM; MSc. PHAM THI VAN ANH

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 1198-1208
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.02.137

In the current context, with the continuous development of digital technology 4.0 and AI, the social sciences and humanities majors need to change approaches in teaching, transformation and combine multi-method, interdisciplinary in teaching. Approaching from a historical perspective, the article analyzes the transformation and operation of the interdisciplinary approach in teaching and research in social sciences and humanities in Vietnamese universities. The above research results confirm that the interdisciplinary approach in teaching and research in the social sciences and humanities is an inevitable trend in the context of university autonomy in Vietnam and responds to the changing the world today