Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Issue 5,

Issue 5

Performance of Public Universities in Pakistan: Mediating Role of Cultural Factors


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.001

The main objective of the current research is to assess the mediating role of organisational cultural between entrepreneurial orientation, structural factor and performance of public universities. The contribution of universities in the development of any country is an undeniable fact. The previous studies emphasised on such aspects, as structural factors that affect universities performance but the role of cultural factors have been ignored. The current study explores cultural factors as mediating variable between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The current research applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. We developed, through an in-depth desktop research, a questionnaire that was distributed by mailed/postal survey to the randomly selected 415 respondents working in Pakistani public universities. The collected data was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) with the help of SmartPLS 3.2.7, a widely used data analytical tool. Out study finds that cultural factors significantly mediate the relationship between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The university management at different level is expected to enhance competencies of conducting high quality teaching, research and contribution to wider society through utilisation of scarce resources and creating a congenial cultural environment to maximize outcome from the available strength and opportunities and overcome the weakness and challenges. The findings and recommendations are expected to add value to the current body of literature in the higher education and particular value addition will be for the Pakistani universities.   

Exploring Elements of Naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge

Ramsha Ishaq; Abdur Razaq; Khan Sardaraz; Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.002

This paper explores the elements of naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge (2004)
from Emile Zola’s dimension of naturalism. The major issue of the paper is that hereditary and
environment control human’s actions. It also investigates how these two elements change our
destiny and course of life. Emile Zola’s ideas have been used as tools for collecting data in this
qualitative study. The paper found out that person’s own actions are not totally responsible for
his failure, however human nature has significant role in changing their life too. Besides, the
paper observes that nature, however unseen, dominates over all aspects of human life. The paper
opens up the new ways of knowledge in the mainstream studies.

A Transcendentalist Critique of Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha

Saira Bibi, Muhammad Ramzan, Naseer Muhammad, Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.003

The paper is an attempt to find out the ways of achieving eternal peace, perfection, and
recognizing self and God in Herman Hesse’s novel Siddhartha (2003) from the prospective of
Transcendentalism. The main issue of the paper is to explore how far the elements of
Transcendentalism flow through the text of the selected novel and how characters achieve
their goal by recognizing self and individuality. Herman Hesse and Transcendentalists are
well known for spiritual themes relating God, self, nature, and perfection. This qualitative
study finds out that the novel is abundant in themes borrowed from Transcendentalism. The
research in this way opens further avenues for analyzing the text through the perspectives of

Integration of the Three Religions in Chinese Ideological History: Four Stages And Three Dimensions


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.004

There is a very remarkable phenomenon in the Chinese ideological history which is known as ‘the integration of the three religions’. The three religions refers to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Since its introduction into China in 2nd century B.C., after a long fusion with local Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism has finally succeeded in taking its roots in Middle Kingdom. Standing side by side with Confucianism and Taoism, It has become the mainstream of Chinese ideology and culture. During the process of fusion, the three schools of thought of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism have jointly formed the three cornerstones of Chinese traditional culture. Based on the fusion of Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism and Taoism, this paper explores the four stages and three dimensions of the integration of the these three religions in China

Study on Factors Influencing the Choice of Investors towards Mutual Funds

Nittan Arora; Dr. Sonia Chawla

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 41-57
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.005

The study is based on a sample of 200 qualified respondents chosen using multistage random
sampling to understand the influence of various factors on investment decision and choice of
investment towards mutual funds. The article identifies association of attributes risk perception,
investment pattern and risk taking ability with demographic factors. Study mainly focuses on the
factors influencing the choice of investors towards mutual funds and the impact of demographic
factors on risk perception, investment pattern and risk taking ability of mutual fund investors.
283 respondents contacted for getting 200 mutual funds investors. Chi-square & Henry Garret
Rating techniques applied for analysis the data. Regular return on schemes has emerged to be the
most important factor and less Procedure least important factor that affects the choice of the
investors towards selecting mutual funds. Most of the demographic factors have no significant
association with investment pattern, risk perception and risk taking ability.

Thoroughly examining the influence of managerial accounting on organizational performance with Heckman two-step technique

Quang Linh Huynh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.006

The implementation of managerial accounting practices in business has been broadly
recognized as a determinant of organizational performance. Earlier studies have not taken
sample selection bias problem into consideration when examining this relationship. The
current work scrutinizes the relation from managerial accounting adoption to organizational
performance by employing Heckman two-step technique. The data was collected from 302
publicly listed enetrprises in Vietnam’s main Stock Exchanges. The findings suggest there
exists sample selection bias in the causal link from the implementation of managerial
accounting practices to organizational performance. The current research is helpful to
managerial accounting scholars as well as business executives, in shedding light on the
association between managerial accounting practices and organizational performance. The
findings could help directors in their business decisions on adopting managerial accounting
practices which should correspond to their organizational characteristics and business
environment, where they can obtain the best organizational performance.

Approach to the assessment of the financial and accounting risks with digital economy conditions for projects (representation)

Heyder G. Wannes Alkarawy, Mohammed Madlool Al-Sultani; Hind Adnan; Nasser Jassem Nasser Al-Ssadi; Ahmed Abd Zaid Abedi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.007

The digitization of the economy in the modern world has become an inevitable process that
objectively affects all areas of society and determines the direction of its development. The
importance of the study is evidenced by the high degree of modern development combined with the
constant transformation. In the process of informing the economy, the implementation of the
principles of digitizing the economy by an organization is impossible without the use of tools that
can ensure the continuous work on making changes to the current economic system. These tools are
(acting) projects. Which called for classifying projects (representation) into the five groups. The
numerical procedures for project risk (representation) are defined from three scenarios in which
each scenario and its risks are identified. The evaluation of the assessed factors of the digital
(representation) project was developed on a scale of 3 weight points for each risk, as well as
calculating the importance of risks regarding the not optimal level for a fraction of the cost of the
project and Implementing (feasibility) the project in decision-making of choose the project
(representation) or Non-continuity of the project (representation) during implementation. Which
indicates the importance and importance of this risk to the project and to the financial stability of
the company as a whole

Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction with The lastmile Delivery Service of The Food and Beverage Industry E-Commerce in Hanoi City


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 83-100
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.008

The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors affecting
customer satisfaction with the use of last-mile delivery service in the food and
beverage industry in e-commerce in Hanoi.The authors examine the impact of
factors on customer satisfaction from 2015 to 2021 using the SERVQUAL
service quality model combined with the SERVPERF perceived level model,
and the American customer satisfaction index model - ACSI. The results
show a relatively significant impact of several factors such as reliability,
assurance, empathy and perceived value. In addition, income and gender
factors also affect customer satisfaction

A Systematic Review of the Relationship Between Human Resource Management, Ethnic Diversity, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance

Nnamoko Faith Daberechukwu, Mohd Fauzi Kamarudin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 101-119
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.009

The employee is an integral part of any organization, the job performance of the
employee is linked to his/her job satisfaction, and this influences the employee’s level of
motivation on the job which directly reflects on the organizational productivity. The
human resource management (HRM) has the key role of ensuring that the rights of each
employee are respected as well as ensuring the protection of interests and job satisfaction
of the employees. This study seeks to examine the relationship between the human
resource management, ethnic diversity, job satisfaction, and organizational productivity,
highlighting the role of the human resource management on the management of ethnic
diversity, job satisfaction as well as organizational performance. This paper is based on
previous research studies data from google scholar from the year 2010 to 2020. 19
articles were found related to the search keywords. This paper would be relevant for
further study on the relevant areas to tackle to improve the organizational performance as
well as its productivity.

Establishing the Reliability &Validity of Scale for Smart Roads: Examining the Mediating-Moderating effects of government policies, management support, beliefs, attitude & behavior

Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 120-159
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.010

Smart roads have transformed the conventional roads into more efficient and drivers friendly,
however, the transition is not easy for both developed and developing nations. Therefore, the
successful development of smart roads is possible if these countries adequately address the sociopolitical,
psychological, organizational, cultural, financial, technological issues besides issues
related to government policies, public-private partnership and support, the belief, attitude, and
behavior. This study is an effort in the same line. Data was collected from Canada, France and
Saudi Arabia. PLS-SEM was used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression was run for
moderation. The study found that innovative culture, public-private partnership, green energy,
safety and security, economic sustainability, government policies, top management support,
attitude and behavior are crucial for the development of smart roads. This study also suggeststhat
cultural issues need to be addressed for the success of smart roads.

The phenomenon of mobbing among young employees in relation to the size of the organization in Poland

Szymon Jarosz, Karol Gozdecki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 160-175
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.011

The article is deals with the phenomenon of mobbing affects young people taking their first steps on the labour market in relation to the size of the organization. It is obvious that mobbing has a deep impact on individuals. Nevertheless, it also has profound, consequences for management in the organization, quality of management and atmosphere in the organization, which consequently translates into the performance of the whole organization. The objectives of the article were achieved by using the survey questionnaire research tool. The conclusions of the article can provide important guidance to management practitioners, giving an insight into the situation of mobbing depending on the size of the organization.

Analysis of the Motives of Indian Collector’s for Accumulating Collectibles

Anshul Kaushik, Dr. Ramandeep Kaur

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 176-196
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.012

People across the globe collect numerous items ranging from stamps, stones, letter, coins, banknotes, paintings, photographs, cultural artifacts to vintage artworks. Collection might refer to some type of assortment with which the collector has an emotional connect. Money or profit in exact business term might not even be a factor to consider for a true collector. This is the feeling or the delight of owning the items which underline the true essence of collection. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the trade of collectible items especially in antique items resulting in generation of revenue for the nations. This has led to the emergence of another set of people who collect items for profit and investment around the globe, known as professional collectors. India, being no exception is also seeing its share of surge in international trade in collectibles


Baykhonov Bahodirjon Tursunbaevich; Abdulhakimov Zuhrali Tursunalievich; Khalilov Nurillo Khamidullaevich; Solieva Gulbaxor Ahmadjanovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 197-207
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.013

This article shows the ways to maintain the pace of development of the country's
economy in emergencies, taking into account the effects of globalization, the study of the
country's GDP in times of crisis, the study of the country's economic potential under the
influence of specific factors. is carried out with. These include tax reform aimed at liberalizing
the foreign exchange market, increasing incomes and stimulating production, the gradual
transition to medium-term budget planning, reducing the role of inflation targeting in the
economy, the gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and the introduction of market
mechanisms. information on reforms.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 208-220
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.014

Insurance is the mechanism of risk sifting, a financial tool specially created to reduce
the finance, impact of unexpected events that happens in every life. Wealth is an
important factor of human resource development and good health is real wealth of
society, the health is the state of being free from illness or injury. World Health
Organization (WHO), defines it as a "State of complete physical, mental, and social
well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health is a dynamic
condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to
stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called
homeostasis. This paper mainly focuses on the single women, stay-at-home mothers,
married women, working women all of whom should have adequate insurance cover. It
is the need of the hour, as it helps to safeguard their health, save money, and create a
shield of protection. Women need more medical intervention than men because they
require reproductive care and they tend to fall ill more often.

The Consumer’s pro environmental attitude and its impact on green purchase behavior

Neelam Sheraz, Saima Saleem , Shahbaz sultan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 221-233
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.015

This paper aims to analyze the consumer’s pro environmental behavior and attitude about
ecological products. The aim of this study is to analyze the consumer purchase intention and
ecological behavior towards the green items. In this study the researcher has thoroughly
examined the consumers personal norms that how a consumer react about the environment
friendly products. Governments and other companies, as significant financial institutions have
started to give a guarantee towards natural assurance by changing production strategies, produce
green items, and modifying ecological security arrangements. This paper analyzed the
environment friendly products purchase intention is safe for an environment; the customers
would have been environment concern and environmental attitude. This study has investigated
the customer’s pro-environmental attitude, personal norms, social norms and less damaging the
environment products purchase intention, which are less harm for the earth, impact on
environment friendly product behavior.
The data were collected from the 403 individuals, males and females who lived in Rawalpindi
and Islamabad through survey questionnaires. The usable questionnaires were 403 as
convenience sampling techniques was used which were used for the purpose of data analysis.
Researcher has chosen the Cross-sectional study. The data was analyzed through SPSS in which
data was measure its frequency, variance, linear regression, the descriptive statistics of the
dependent and independent variables, and mediator variables with independent and dependent
variables. Results indicate that relationship result the relationships of social norms with green
purchase behavior, personal norms with green purchase behavior and pro-environmental attitude
with green purchase behavior were found significant
This study developed a deeper understanding of the impact of independent variables personal
norms, social norms and pro environmental behavior of customers with the mediating effect of
green purchase intention on green purchase behavior.

Too big to cheat? An empirical study of the impact of firm size on earnings management in Vietnam

Dr. Do Thi Van Trang, Dr. Tran Ngoc Mai

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 234-247
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.016

Earning management has been an ongoing problem throughout the world nowadays. Determinants of earning management and their impacts are still a controversial topic. This study therefore aims to measure the impact of firm size and sale growth volatility on the manipulation among corporations in Vietnam. Firm size is evidenced positively related to the misstatements, the larger the size is, the greater motivation they have with the earnings. Sale growth volatility, which has not been widely used before, is significantly associated with the earning management. Firms with unstable sales appear to engage in earning manipulation

Keep talented Employees onboard by Work Engagement: Dark behaviors (Blame Attributions, bullying and Turnover Intention) in Organization

Samrah Jamshaid; Dr. Najma I Malik, Dr. Mohsin Atta; Adnan Ali Haider, Saba Jamshad; Kamran Jamshed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 248-265
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.017

Every organization has a dark side indeed and the present study aimed to explore dark side
behaviors in higher education institutes from the perspective of blame attribution, workplace
bullying, and turnover intention which needed to be recognized. These behaviors considered
being deviant behavior affects teachers both emotionally and physically. Current study aimed
to explore the concept of keeping intact the talented teacher through work engagement while
battling with dark behaviors. Study further analyzed the mediating role of work engagement
in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention among teachers of
HEIs. Quantitative research with the use of survey design and self-administered questionnaire
was conducted among upon a sample of purposively selected teachers from Higher Education
Institutes (HEIs) in Sargodha, Pakistan, was carried out during March to July 2019. Utrecht
Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli, et al., 2002), Blame attribution scale (Gudjonsson &
Singh, 1989), Negative Act Questionnaire (Einarsen, Raknes & Helleosy, 1994), and
Turnover Intention scale (Mitchell, et al., 2001) were used to measure the constructs of study.
Regression analysis reveals work engagement was a significant predictor for blame
attribution, workplace bullying, and turnover intention. Findings also revealed that work
engagement was a key booster to keep talented employees on board while tackling workplace
bullying and turnover intention. Findings of the study were helpful for organizations to keep
their talented employees on board and for employees to cope with dark behaviors.

Banking Sector Development, Inflation and Economic Growth of Pakistan: The Nexus

Muhammad Awais, Sayed Fayaz Ahmad, Poonam Riaz, Muhammad Ibrahim

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 266-293
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.018

Study has been conducted to analyze the causal relation among banking sector development,
inflation and economic growth of Pakistan. Study undertake the yearly data from 1960 to 2018
where as data has been collected from world bank indicators. Banking sector development has
been analyzed with help of five different variables BRM, CLP, DCP, DCB and BSI where as
Inflation has been measure with help of inflation and economic development has been measure
with GDP growth in percentage. Intiallyunitroot test has been applied on as collected data is in
time series where GDP is found stationary at level I(0) and other avriables found stationary after
taking first difference I(1).Johansson co-intergration test has been applied to identify the
relationship between variables VECM granger causality test has been applied to identify the
direction of relationship between variables. Results shows thatBidirectional causality found
between INF and BRM while unidirectional causality found from GDP to INF, INF to GDP,
GDP to CLP, INF to BSI, CLP to INF and INF to DCB Study conclude that not all the variables
are integrated with eachother only few of selected variables of banking sectors have relation with
GDP and INF.

Barriers in Implementing TQM in Secondary Schools: A comparison between privately-owned and government-owned schools of Pakistan

Abdullah Aziz , M. Jafar Hussain, , SayedFayaz Ahmad, AbidHussain Nadeem, Muhammad Ibrahim, Abdul Qayyum, Sana Amjad

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 294-307
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.019

Quality in education is essential in the overall development of a nation. In an
underdeveloped nation, such as Pakistan, the focus of quality is usually on primary or tertiary
education which overlookssecondary schooling. In this regard, theperceived causes of poor
implementation of total quality management in secondary schooling were studied. Faculties of
both public and private schools were surveyed with respect to six different barriers that are
responsible for lack of quality in the education sector. Each analyzed barrier pointed out the
extent of the educational quality. It also highlights the similarity in educational qualitydoes not
depend upon the ownership of the school. Reasons for poor perception of quality management
systems in the education sector are also discussed along with recommendations against each


G.Sh. Xonkeldieva .; Gulyorahon Bakhtiyarovna Shanazarova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 308-320
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.020

The article discusses the improvement of organizational and economic control mechanisms of the service sector while stimulating digital changes in the economy of Uzbekistan. It also pays attention to a number of areas of modernization services and analyzes all aspects of the research process that has made significant progress in this area in recent years

Identifying Dimensions of hospital cost management in Iranusing structural equation modeling

Mahsa Ghaziasgar, Shaghayegh Vahdat, Somayeh Hessam, IravanMasoudi asl, HoseinMoshiriTabrizi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 321-328
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.021

Aim: Hospitals as the most important providers of healthcare services around the world, are
facing a wide range of duty and cost of services. This article aimed to identifying the key
dimensions affecting in the cost management of Iran hospitals.
Methods: This descriptive study was performed in two qualitative and quantitative stages. First
factors influencing hospital cost management were extracted through literature and interview
with 20 experts in the field of hospital governance and proposed model was designed. Then a
questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 207 experts in the staff-and-line sector
of Tehran University of medical sciences. The research model was analyzed using exploratory
and confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS22 and Lisrel software.
Results: Five dimensions influencing hospital cost management were identified. Human
resource management and consumption resource management with factor of 0.88 and 0.71 had
the most and least significant efforts on hospital cost management.
Conclusions:This finding revealed that, for optimal hospital cost management, while considering
all five factors, human resource management should be emphasized

The Role of CEO Leadership and Project Management for Innovation Success in IT Sector of Pakistan: A Moderating Effect Of Human Capital

Hassan Daud Butt, Urooj Aijaz, Sofia Bano, Dr.Asif Shamim, Anum Hayat, Marium Mazhar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 329-348
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.022

The purpose is to examine the effect of CEO transformational leadership, and project
management best practices on innovation success with the moderating effect of human capital
in IT firms of Pakistan. Using purposive sampling technique, 306 responses have been
collected from the IT professionals of Karachi, Pakistan while PLS-SEM has been employed
for analysis. The results have shown that CEO transformational leadership and technical
aspects of project management best practices have positive effect on innovation success of IT
firms while people aspects of project management best practices have no effect on innovation
success of IT firms. However, human capital does not moderate the effect of CEO
transformational leadership and project management best practices on IT firms’ innovation
success in Pakistan. Hence, the study has suggestedthat the correct choice of tools and
procedures leads to innovation, PMBP can also be used strategically by organizations. It will
streamline management actions for the progress of innovation, as well as build invaluable
tools for the preparation, implementation, monitoring and assessment of innovative
workflows, develop improved connectivity and efficient coordination with clients

Critical Analysis of Blue Ocean Principles to Maximize the Business Opportunity and Minimize the Risk for the Success of Uber E-Taxi

Dr.K.Jawahar Rani, Dr. R.S Lekshmi, A. Priya Jenifer, V. Santhya

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 350-372
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.023

A strong framework for seeking potential business opportunities is the
Blue Ocean Strategy. This paper explains the concepts of the blue ocean
strategy, principle and risk associated with Uber and how Uber breaks
down conventional strategic competitive thinking and uses strategic
concepts of the blue ocean to increase demand and benefit for the
company. The four principles are how to establish uncontested market
space by restoring market boundaries, concentrating on the big picture,
reaching new market spaces beyond current demand and supply, and
having the strategic sequence right. Uber discovered the untapped e-taxi
market, which had enough opportunities for rapid growth and
profitability, and this initiative made it possible for them to identify
their larger, deeper potential e-taxi market in its strategic formulation,
which was not explored.


Madiha Kamal, Urooj Aijaz, Dr. Hina Shafiq, Naila Mushtaq, Khalid Khan, Fawad Rauf, Humza Qureshi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 373-402
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.024

By the year 2025 over half of the global growth will be contributed by 577 “middle weight” cities in the top 600 and the vast majority of them will be in emerging economies, and two-thirds from Chinese and Indian cities. Accordingly, “Urbanization and economic growth are strongly associated, hence, urban areas, in general, and cities, in particular, have been identified as the “Engine of Growth”, and “Agent of Change” (Mohan and Das Gupta, 2005). Cities evolve multiplicity of opportunities that allow individuals and communities to come together and exercise multifarious activities. The concept of “creative-cities” is rapidly attracting the interest of academician and policy makers. By 2020, over 60 percent of the China’s population will be  living in cities. It is estimated, that, by 2050, about 67 percent of the world’s population will be city dwellers (6.3 billion people). This would be 8.3 billion people by the early 22nd century. Cities produce over 80 percent of the world’s GDP and, 60 percent of the world’s GDP is being generated by top 600 cities with 25 percent of the world’s population. Such high economic density reflects the vital role of cities as the main source of productivity. There has been no systematic research exists in the country to identify the relative importance of the “Key drivers of city competitiveness. Present endeavor, for the first in Pakistan, an exploration in this direction.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 403-409
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.025

Consumer perception plays a major role in buying behaviour. Studies show that India has
more rural user internet than urban uses. Hence there is huge space for e-commerce
business in rural area. The aim of the study is to understand the perception of rural
consumer of digital market in karamadai -Coimbatore district. To analysis this study we
have used multipliable regression technic. The result comprises of factors that encourage
and discourage the rural consumers to use online shopping, we have also given few

Ratiocination over Deliberations in the Fiction of Trio- Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal with special velleity towards relational complexity and ethnocentric intricacy

Dr. Jaya Sharma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 410-418
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.026

This paper attempts to analyze how the trio Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal
etch fragile human relationship in the wake of contemporary maladies creeping in the society.
Attenuated emotional bonds, urge for more space, patriarchal subjugation, rifts in understanding
eclipse conjugal harmony and nuptial relations. The trio has chosen to give voice to entangled
man-woman relations, incompatibility in marriages, cultural ethnocentrism resulting in marital
disharmony, alienation, estrangement, East-west Encounter, Identity Crisis, Familial nuances,
Pseudo modernism in Indian society, social life and marital dissonance and feministic seclusion.
Draught of female manifestations in Indian English Literature culminates with the foray of Anita
Desai, Ruth Jhabwala, Kamla Markandey, Sudha Murthy, Jhumpa Lahiri, Chitra Bannerjee,
Kiran Desai, Nergis Dalal etc. who dribbled it with the clear stream of their expressions. The
initiation of female authors enlarged the dimension by giving voice to untold miseries, unheard
experiences and unwritten encounters. Disparate streams of the works of the three contemporary
writers Nergis Dalal, Anita Desai and Ruth Jhabwala sometimes sparkle with the streak of same
themes manifested in different style

Design and Analysis of ZSI based DVR for Improving the Voltage profile


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 419-429
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.027

The principle objective of this task is to protect sensitive weights from voltage droops or expands with Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) utilizing VSI and ZSI. The Z-source inverters which have been actually proposed as an elective force change thought crushes the sensible and speculative obstacles and limitations of the standard voltage-source converter and current-source converter and gives a novel force change thought. Here the assessment is made between the display of DVR using VSI and ZSI. The sinusoidal condition of the yield voltage paying little notice to the load type is kept up by this voltage control system.

Does Exchange Rate Regime, Political Stability, and Capital Controls Influence the Currency Crisis

Zia U llah; Tan Xiao Fen; Fayaz Husain Tunio; Imran U llah

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 430-451
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.028

This study used the probit models to examine the relationship between exchange rate regime,
political stability, and capital controls on currency crises. Dataset is based on 1996 to 2020 over
the currency crisis episodes in 23 high-income countries and 25 middle-income countries, and
the total observation annually is 1200. Recent empirical studies have mixed results and argue
that the relationship is expectedto depend on capital controls and political stability both with the
exchange rate. The analysis providesimpressive results for fixed exchange rate and capital
controls are negatively associated with crisis,significantly less stable governments. The results
strongly support that floating exchange rate and (open) economies are negatively associated with
crises and lower the risk of crisis, remarkably more stable political governments. (Open)
economies and floating exchange rates are positively associated with a currency crisis and more
prone to a currency crisis, exceptionally less stable political governments.


Hoang Xuan Binh, Khamkeo Manivong, Hoang Thi Hoa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 452-469
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.029

The objective of this study is to examine the spillover effects of foreign direct
investment (FDI) on domestic firms in Savannakhet province, Laos. The author uses the fixed
effects model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM) with the help of Eviews software and
Hausman test to analyze the spillover effects of FDI on domestic firms. in Savannakhet province
in the period 2013-2018. Table I-O 2018 is used to structure the relationship between domestic
firms and FDI enterprises through the horizontal and vertical spillover effect of FDI on domestic
firms. With the data set of sectors from 2013 to 2018, the author estimated the impact of FDI on
production and business activities of FDI enterprises. The result of this study is that there is
empirical evidence of the effect of the spillover effect of FDI on domestic firms in Savannakhet



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 470-491
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.030

Around 20 ambulance services operated in Karachi; however, the network of Edhi, Chhipa
and Aman ambulance services provides the bulk of patient transport. The study aims to
compare the quality of ambulance service delivery with international standards. With a mixmethod
approach, 357 patients/attendants and key stakeholders participated in the study. The
results revealed a wide range of differences in service quality. Aman services delivery quality
is rated 72% compliant, but it constitutes less than 20% of the share of inpatient
transportation due to limited ambulances while Edhi and Chhipa contribute 80% of patient
transportation, but their service delivery quality is rated only 13%. In the subset of
monitoring, infection control, and medicine, Edhi & Chhipa services meet 0% standards. The
thematic analysis revealed that the primary reasons for the poor quality are lack of legislation
& minimum standards, Poor or no monitoring, financial constraints, and lack of awareness. In
conclusion, the ambulances services operating in the city lacks minimum service quality
standards, thus pose a constant threat to patient life using these services.

Application of Reciprocal Law in Returning Assets Resulting from Corruption

Helex Wirawan, Ismet Ismet

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 492-516
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.031

One of the unresolved legal issues in Indonesia is corruption. The problem of law enforcement is not yet optimal so that the assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption which are often more than national territory make it difficult to return. Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, abbreviated as MLA, which is expected to help law enforcement is not yet optimal. Indonesia, as a participant country of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), does not yet have a regulatory framework that comprehensively regulates the aspects recommended by the convention. This study aims to find out about efforts and mechanisms to optimize the role of MLA in the recovery of assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption in Indonesia, especially those abroad. This research is normative juridical research conducted by library research and interviews with informants related to the legislation and comparison approach. This article concludes that optimizing the role of MLA requires several steps such as implementing MLA in a more detailed technical format, optimizing the role of law enforcementas the implementer, and adopting the concept of Non-Conviction Based Asset Forfeiture (NCB).


V.N. Abdullabekova, N.A. Abdullabekova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 517-525
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.032

The article presents the results of identification of volatile substances, as well as macro and microelement composition of fruits "Sophorajaponica L.", cultivated in Tashkent using the method of chromatomass spectroscopy on an Agilent 7890 AGS gas chromatograph, as well as mass spectral analysis using a mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma ICP MS (inductivelycoupledplasmamass-spectrometerAgilentTechnology 7500). As a result of the studies carried out in the fruits of Sophorajaponica L., the content of α-pinene (in hexane - 26.67%, in benzene - 12.93%), eucalyptol (in hexane - 17.23%, in benzene - 9.45%) and camphor (in hexane - 4.5%, in benzene - 2.49%), and the most significant macro- and microelements were found, among which potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron predominate in quantitative terms, chrome, copper and zinc.

Impact Of Electronic Marketing Tools, And Electronic Word Of Mouth On Online Purchase Intention: Empirical Study On University Students In Tabuk

Hebatalla Mohsen Mohammed Abd el baki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 526-568
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.033

This paper aims to study impactof electronic marketing tools, and electronic word of
mouth on online purchase intention: empirical study on university Students in Tabuk, and
also aim to study the different tools of Electronic marketing. The objective of this study is
To examine the impact of E M tools on online purchase intention, the study aims to
examine the impact of E W O M on online purchase intention, andto find out what is the
most effective tool of E M impact on online purchase intention.The study was conducted
in University of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia , the research hypotheses was adopted based on
the previous studies, and Based on variables of the study . The researcher used the
descriptive analytical method; The Data was collected through Field research
(questionnaire) among 120 respondents. The results show there was a positive
correlation between electronic marketing tools and online purchase intention among
university students. This study recommends that companies should move away from
conventional marketing techniques and inculcate electronic marketing into their marketing
plans in order to better stay connected with customer

Circular economic development in Vietnam


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 569-576
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.034

In Vietnam, economic activity has so far been mainly based on the traditional approach,
which is linear economy. This is also the basic cause leading to the shortage of natural resources and
especially causing serious environmental pollution. In order to realize rapid and sustainable
development, to harmoniously deal with the relationship between economic growth and environmental
protection, to "do not trade off" economic growth with environmental pollution and degradation, to
switch to an eco-friendly economy. circular economy is the right direction. However, this
transformation requires seizing the opportunities and accepting the challenges that need to be overcome.
The article analyzes opportunities and challenges of circular economy development and proposes
solutions to promote circular economy development for Vietnam in the coming time.

A literature Investigation on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Wisdom


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 577-584
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.035

The COVID-19 pandemic has made the biggest disturbance of schooling frameworks in
mankind's set of experiences, influencing almost 1.6 billion students in excess of 200 nations.
Terminations of schools, foundations and other learning spaces have affected over 94% of the
world's understudy populace. This has brought expansive changes in all parts of our lives. Social
separating and prohibitive development strategies have fundamentally upset customary
instructive practices. Resuming of schools after unwinding of limitation is another test with
numerous new standard working strategies set up.
Inside a limited ability to focus the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous scientists have shared their
deals with instructing and learning in an unexpected way. A few schools, schools and colleges
have stopped eye to eye lessons. There is a dread of losing 2020 scholastic year or considerably
more in the coming future. The need of great importance is to enhance and execute elective
instructive framework and evaluation procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic has given us a
chance to make ready for presenting computerized learning. This article intends to give a far
reaching report on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on web based educating and learning of
different papers and show the route forward.

The Effects of verbal and nonverbal Ostracism on employee interpersonal work behavior

Muhammad Irshad, Dr. Muhammad Arif, Dr. Munir Hussain

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 585-600
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.036

Employee interpersonal behaviors play a vital role in the performance of any organization. If this
behavior of the employee is positive it will boost up the performance of the organization
otherwise it will completely lower the performance of the organization. The behavior of the
employee is mainly affected by the behavior of other employees who are working with them.
When a person or group of people fails to engage another organizational member when it is
socially necessary to do so, it is referred to as workplace ostracism. There are two main
dimensions of workplace ostracism which are verbal and nonverbal ostracism. The purpose of
this study is to investigate the effect of verbal and nonverbal ostracism on employee
interpersonal deviance behavior in the public sector organizations of Balochistan. This study also
aims to examine the moderating role of social self-efficacy on the relationship between verbal
and verbal ostracism and inter-personal deviance behavior. The nature of this study is
quantitative so used the deductive approach. Primary data was collected by a closed-ended
questionnaire from the 103 permanent employees of the public sector organization of
Balochistan who speak a mother tongue other than the local language of that area. The data
analysis technique was PLS-SEM done by the PLS Smart. From the results of this study it was
found that both verbal and nonverbal ostracism will create a Disidentification in the employee
which leads them to interpersonal deviance behavior.

CPEC and Capacity of Banking Sector

Madiha Kamal Hina Shafiq Dr.Muhammad Asif Shamim Dr. Sanam Wagma Khattak Naila Mushtaq Khalid Khan Kumail Asghar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 601-618
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.037

China-Pakistan economic corridor is the potential project that enhances local connectivity,
industrialization, financial cooperation, trade and commerce, infrastructure, tourism, the
solidity of the region and so on and so forth. It is beneficial for not only Pakistan and China
but will have the constructive impact on Afghanistan, Iran, India and the linked region. On
one hand CPEC is opening great opportunities for Pakistan to flourish their business,
industries, and trade, but on the other hand, it is also a challenge for Pakistan in many aspects
of law and order situation, regional conflicts, local financing and capacity of the banking
sector. In this report, the capacity of the banking sector of Pakistan is deeply analyzed with
the stances of different banks on CPEC and what role State Bank is playing in this venture.
Further, this report critically analyzes the problems banking sector is currently facing and
what measure they can take to overcome issues and invest in CPEC projects actively

An Assessment of Training and Its Effectiveness on Employees’ Job Performance”: A Critical Review on The Banking Sector of Ethiopia


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 619-626
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.038

With the current expansion of the global economy and the fast-changing of technology and innovation, Effectiveness Training is necessary for any organization especially in connection with new technology.  The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of training on employees’ job performance in Hawassa City, in order to examine the study data was collected through a self-administered structured questionnaire from a population of 195 employees from various branches of the Banking sector in Hawassa city.  The data collected was analyzed using frequency, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and regression analysis. Regression results indicate that effectiveness training it positively and significantly contributes towards employees’ job performance.  Based on the finding of the study the researcher forwarded some recommendations the management of the CBE.


Adnan Ahmed , Dr Muhammed Arif

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 627-643
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.039

This study identifies critical factors which have influence employee retention in the fastfoodpolicies
in these organizations to retain staff at the floor level.Overall, the results give a
fresh insight into the topic of retention industry. It adds to research studies on similar topics by
exploring critical factors which have not been a regular part of the research, such as supervisor
support and job security. Instead of taking employee turnover intention, this study takes a more
direct approach by using the retention of employees as a dependent variable. The study confirms
through quantitative analysis that three independent variables – Job Satisfaction, Brand Image,
and Job Security have a significant impact on employee retention. In an unusual result, two other
independent variables – Career Development and Supervisor Support have been found to have an
insignificant impact on the employee retention in the fast-food industry. These results have been
validated through online interviews with an Industry Specialist and a Food Researcher.Based on
this study, it is recommended that Operations staff should have their jobs enriched with regular
transfers to other areas like Finance, Marketing, and Purchasing. There is also an urgent need to
reenergize the motivational levelof employees in the fast-food industry in Pakistan.

Impacts of the Free Trade Agreement on Pakistan Export to China and Economic Growth

Khalid Rahamdil; LIU Chunsheng; Faryal Salman;Fayaz Hussain Tunio, Naveed Khan; Agha Amad Nabi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 644-662
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.040

The Free Trade Agreements between Pakistan and China increased the trade prospects
between Pakistan China, resulting in an increased trade deficit in Pakistan with China. The
study is based onhow the FTAs impact exports in Pakistan. This paper's results suggest a
positive contribution of FTAs to Pakistan's exports in China's economy and the imports from
China. However, the increase in imports is much higher than the increase in exports after
Pakistan entered into subsequent FTAs with China. As a result, there is an increase in the
Pakistan trade deficit, and the growth prospects of Pakistan suffered. The constant
marketsuggests that,by focusing on products that enhance
Pakistan'scomparativeadvantage,improving infrastructure, efficient tariff line utilization, and
deep understanding of China's market, all are necessary for Pakistan to benefit from FTAs;
otherwise, their provision becomes counterproductive. It is concluded that Pakistan needs to
reduce the trade deficit with China as it negatively impacts its macroeconomic situation.
Exports enhanced by investing in innovative technologies andreduced importsthrough
production inland.

Environmental analysis and its role in the success of the " organization " An analytical exploratory study in the Directorate of Water Resources / Babylon

Prof. Dr Nayef Ali Assi, Hameed Jassem

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 663-674
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.041

The research aims to know the role of environmental analysis by its dimensions (analysis of the
internal environment, analysis of the external environment) in the success of the organization by its
dimensions (efficiency of operations, attention to the customer, possession of resources, good
management). The questionnaire was used as a method for collecting data, and a random sample of
(50) individuals was chosen from the Water Resources Directorate / Babil. The research was based
on two measures that were developed by the researcher based on the research literature and the
nature and environment of the research and were subjected to validity and reliability tests. For the
purpose of achieving the research objectives, the research was formulated. Two main hypotheses
were tested by several statistical means using the ready-made statistical program (SPSS Var 22).
The research concluded that there is an important impact of environmental analysis on the success
of the organization.

Investigating the Business Performance of Public and Private Banks Based on Professional Ethics Management Model (Case Study: Northwestern Banks of Iran)

Sodeif Bagheri Dabanlou, Shahram Mirzaei Daryani, Ishaq Rasouli, Mohammad Rouhi Issa Lou, Habib Ebrahimpour

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 675-692
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.042

The purpose of this study is to investigate the business performance of public and private banks
based on the professional ethics management model in northwestern banks in Iran. The present
study was descriptive in terms of performance, quantitative-qualitative in terms of
implementation method and cross-sectional in terms of time. The methods of data collection for
compiling the theoretical foundations and research literature and backgrounds were library and
the method of data collection was survey. First, by studying the sources, indicators related to
professional ethics were extracted, and then, to measure and evaluate the situation of public and
private banks, questionnaires of regulation and distribution were collected. The statistical
population of the study includes branch experts in the northwestern region of the country, which
is 2249 in the public banking system and 1566 in the private banking system. The sample size of
branch experts in the northwestern region is 134 for the state banking system and 94 for the
private banking system. Due to the unlimited number of customers, 384 customers were selected
as the statistical population, of which 192 people were selected from each bank.
The CVR for professional ethics management and business performance promotion
questionnaires was 0.73 and 0.60, respectively. The results showed that Cronbach's alpha
coefficient for both questionnaires is more than 0.7. Exploratory factor analysis, correlation and
t-test were used to evaluate the results. The results showed that there is a relationship between
management based on professional ethics and business performance from the respondents' point
of view and the level of belief in professional ethics management in private banks was higher
than government banks.

The Relationship in Accrual Earnings Management and Real Earnings Management in Context of Pakistan.


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 693-719
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.043

This study focus on trade-off decision between earnings management strategies. For
this purpose AEM measured through the modified jones model (1991) and Kathoriet
al.,(2005)model and REM is captured through four measurements of Roychowdhury model
(2006). The sample is based on non-financial firms that are listed on PSX from 2007 to 2018 that
further divided and adopt those firms that suspects to enjoying EM incentives. For
analysispurpose we use panel data and our model is Zang (2012) model. The findingsapprove
that AEM have no switching relationship with any measurement of earnings management except
abnormal production cost. The unexpected REM measurement of production cost showsa
substitution effect. But, in this model also IFRS adoption does not play a role to control
switching choices between EM strategies. Overall, not all, but a few factors such as; firm status,
financial health of company and marginal tax rate show predicted directional relationship in
AEM models.

Critical Review of Deep Learning Algorithms for Plant Diseases by Leaf Recognition

M. Jaithoon Bibi, Dr. S.Karpagavalli, A. Kalaivani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 720-729
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.044

The identification and classification of the crop leaf diseases plays an essential role in the
cultivation. Plants are the livelihood. Peoples depend entirely on crops for the breathing of
their daily lives. Thus, suitable crop caring should take place. Most research suggests that
the quality of agricultural commodities can be restricted depending on different factors. Crop
diseases include microorganisms and pathogens. The leaf diseases not only reduce crop
growth, the cultivation is also destroyed. Several researchers have been identified crop
leaf diseases using image processing algorithms but it take more time for detection.
Therefore, advanced algorithms are required to identify and classify the crop leaf diseases
automatically with higher accuracy. There are different deep learning algorithms using crop
leaf images developed for automatically detecting the crop leaf diseases in an efficient
manner. In this article, a survey on different deep learning algorithms using image processing
for detecting and classifying the crop or plant leaf diseases is presented. Also, the merits and
demerits of the surveyed algorithms for crop leaves diseases identification are addressed in a
tabular form. Finally, a comprehensive analysis is concluded and future directions are
suggested to increase the accuracy of leaf diseases classification.

State and development trends of the quality of the population in Uzbekistan

Mukhamedova Sevara Abdukakhkhorovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 730-740
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.045

The article developed a system of indicators that determine the standard of living of the
population of Uzbekistan, scientific proposals and practical recommendations for their
calculation. Practical application of the developed scientific proposals and practical
recommendations. In the future, Uzbekistan will develop scientific proposals and practical
recommendations aimed at improving the living standards of the population through their active
use to improve the level and quality of life.

Short-term open innovation hackathons as a method to improve tourism innovation

Lucía Santana Cerdeña, Jose P. Suárez Rivero

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 741-753
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.046

This article has as objective the use case study applied by Lopesan Hotel Group,
the Hackathon Think in Innovation; whose goal was to promote Open Innovation in the hotel
group, providing solutions to the challenges identified by the organization and promoting the
creation of an innovative culture within the company. The evaluation results of the
participants during two editions (years 2015 and 2016) are analyzed, amounting to a total of
94 surveys. Likewise, the benefits and the reasons why the format have not been continued
by the hotel group are exposed. In general, the format has given Lopesan Hotel Group
recognition as an innovative brand, generating a rich source of future projects to develop
internally or externally.

English for Specific Purposes

Ibragimova Dildora Shamsiddinovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 754-758
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.047

English for architects is perhaps the most neglected kind of ESP (English for Specific Purposes).
Architects need English for all kinds of reasons, and your first job as a teacher and/or course
designer will be to work out what they are and which are priorities. The aims to find out the
effectiveness of architectural drawings in teachingEnglish vocabulary . The media applied in the
research worked in both improving Architecture-major students’ ability to learn the target
language and motivating them in the teaching-learning process. A questionnaires analysis was
used to determine factors affecting students’ lack ofEnglish vocabulary. The quasi-experimental
method was applied to acquire the test data needed. Based on the analysis, the findings showed
that there was a significant success on improving the students’ vocabulary mastery. However, as
the architectural drawings used in the research were limited on the presentation type of drawing,
other kinds of architectural drawings may not result in the similar way.

The Role of Husamuddin Sadr Shahid and Husamuddin Al-Ahsikati's Scientific Heritage in Islamic Jurisprudence

Ilhomjon Bekmirzaev, Dildora Nishanova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 759-777
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.048

The scientific heritage of two great Central Asian scholars, Husamuddin Sadr Shahid
and Husamuddin al-Akhsikati, is of great importance to the Islamic Jurisprudence. An in-depth
study of the scientific and spiritual heritage left by the faqihs of the Oli Moza family from
Bukhara is one of the important tasks facing researchers today. This paper will detail the works
and scientific heritage of Husamuddin Sadr Shahid (473/1090–536/1141), a great representative
of the Ali Moza family and one of the famous Hanafi jurists, and his contemporary fellow,
Husamuddin al-Akhsikati.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 778-784
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.049

The study of the skills, style and originality of the critic is one of the most important and urgent
problems of literary criticism. While the issue of the writer's style has been studied in Uzbek
literature, the issue of the style and skill of the critics has been neglected. Therefore, in our study,
we aimed to study the unique style and skills of critics. In this regard, in this article we present
our views on the style and skill of the great literary critic I. Hakkulov and critic I. Gafurov. Th


Bahrom Karimov Djalolovich, Ernazarov Azim Xudoyqulovich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 785-790
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.050

45 versts (1verst-1.06 km) to thesouth-eastofKarshi is thecityof Guzar, thecenterofthe Guzar principality, whose geographicallocation is on thehills on  thewesternslopeoftheGissarmountainrange. [1, -663] Theprincipalityof Guzar is bordered on thenorthbytheupperreachesoftheGreatUradarya, on theeastbytheGreatUradaryaandtheeastern part ofKirshaktog, and on thewestby 35-40 latitudes. TheQuyitangRiver, whichflowsthroughthewestern part oftheprincipality, is considered to betheborderoftheprincipalitiesof Guzar andKelif. Theeastern, southernandwesternpartsofthe Guzar principalityconsistofmountainousareasfoundOnlythenorth-western part oftheprincipality, iethe part bordering on theKarshiprincipality, consistedof a plain. In the 19th century, theborderbetweentheprincipalitiesof Guzar andKarshibegan in thevillageofYangikent, which is locatedatanaltitudeof 1,150 feet (1ft-30.48 cm) abovesealevel. Theheightofthemountains in theeasternandsouth-eastern part ofthe Guzar principalitywas 2200-2400 feet.² [2, -154]Thecityof Guzar, thecenterofthe Guzar principality, hasbeenmentionedmanytimes in manyhistoricalworksabout Hazrat Amir Temur, fromSharafiddin Ali Yazdi's "Zafarnoma" to Zahiriddin Muhammad Babur's "Boburnoma". [3, -7]

Emotional Intelligence Competencies Developed Through Raja Yoga Meditation: A Study of Women in National Capital Region of India

Prachi Rohatgi, Dr. Manju Singh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 791-804
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.051

Brahma Kumaris Sahaj Raja Yoga Meditation is a simple yet practical techniqueto bring the
mental peace and inner harmony in today’s chaotic times. The research on the practices of
such techniques has shown that, they are great help in thestress management and in the
prevention of many of the psychosomaticdiseases. Raj Yoga is the highest yoga that
empowers the self to rule the mind, sense-organs and the body. It is based on the Prajapati
Brahma Kumarie’s school of thought. There are several psychological benefits incurred by
Raja yoga which have not been highlighted due to scarcity of scientific studies.The present
study examined the effect of Raja Yoga Meditation practice on emotional intelligence of
women who’s emotional and behavioural responses varied on the basis of Biopsychosocial
factors. Especially in Indian society women’s mental health is affected mainly due to male
chauvinism culture.A large no of women population is still not open for their emotional
expression which is not a true definition of ‘women empowerment’ in contemporary times.
Mere legislative governance will not help in this, women need to feel freedom at core level.
The paper is based on primary data collected through field survey of 600 women from NCR
region of India Results suggest that the group practicing Raja Yoga had significantly less
emotional disturbance and able to manage their emotions well in comparison to the group not
practicing Raja Yoga Meditation

Current Situation and Prospects of Regional Development in Mongolia: On the Example of the Eastern Region

Sarangerel Dashnyam, Baljinnyam Gungaa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 821-832
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.053

The concentration of population, production and services in Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, has led to increasing economic inequality in the capital city and regional and rural areas and widening urban-rural disparitiesalthough thecountry’s economy has been growing in recent years. 46 percent of the total population of the country (1,463,000) and 64.2 percent (50,467)of the active business entities and organizations [1] are concentrated in the capital city. Stimulating the local economy and ensuring sustainable growth in the medium and long termis necessary to reduce this concentration and development disparity. Therefore, it is crucial to analyze the needs and develop regional development policies and strategies.As the regional development policy is the primary policy to implement all Mongolia's sustainable development policies at the local level, regional and provincial development issues are significant.Mongolian regional development level is measured by regional economic growth, inflation, budget, investment, and key indicators of certain sectors of the economy such as population, density, births, deaths, migration, unemployment, poverty and human development index. 

Effect of Emotional Intelligence on Organisational Commitment in Higher Educational Institutions in Haryana


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 833-849
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.054

The objective of the paper is to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment among the employees of the higher educational institutions in Haryana. A structured questionnaire is used to assess emotional intelligence and organisational commitment.  Participants of the study included 350 employees working in higher education institutions in Haryana, India. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to validate the scales and structural equation modeling is used to explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational commitment using AMOS 21. It is concluded that emotional intelligence is positively associated with organisational commitment. Employees with strong emotional intelligence have greater levels of organisational commitment.

Micro Credit from Zakah Fund in Baitul Mal Aceh : An Analysis from Law

Nurul Ilyana Muhd Adnan, Hafizuddin Muhd Adnan, Nurul Izwah Muhd Adnan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 850-862
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.055

The purpose of this article is to analyze the theoretical distribution of zakah funds to zakah recipients in form of micro credit. The micro-credit zakah distribution is the act of distributing zakah to the asnaf in the form of capital financing. The micro-credit zakah is given to asnaf who want to start a new business or to expand their business. It is questionnable, is there any provision of law that allows zakah to be distributed in the form of micro credit in Baitul Mal Aceh? Based on the findings in the analysis show that the Provision of Indonesian Law No. 38 Year 1999 regarding Zakah Management is not used in Aceh. This is because Aceh government has its own autonomous power. Despite that,there is a Law No. 44 Year 1999,which is the enforcement of law to give a Special Privileges of Aceh Province. Aceh is given the privilege to implement Islamic law in the life of its Muslim people, including issues of zakah distribution.

Resource Integration process in Complex Service Systems: Examining Value Co-Creation at Higher Education Institutions


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 863-877
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.056

This article aims to provide empirical insights on how value co-creation takes place in complex systems; portraying insights from the evolving and complex interaction-based resource integration at HEIs. Tenets of service dominant (S-D) logic (Vargo & Lusch, 2004, 2008)  and service science (Maglio & Spohrer, 2008) are used to conceptualize the resource integration process for value co-creation. Multiple Qualitative case studies are used to explore rich experiences of actors during instances of service interactions in higher education institutions (HEIs) and empirical findings are generated from 37 in-depth interviews, observations and web page analysis. The analysis process and findings from the data are systematically displayed using the GIOIA methodology (Gioia, Corley, & Hamilton, 2013). Empirical findings suggested that achievement of sustainable learning outcomes at HEIs requires management of complex interactions that are embedded within diverse yet dependent systems as value is generated through an iterative resource integration process within the overall engagement phase of value co-creation. Furthermore, deliberate replications on key resource integrating practices between human actors and digital systems are discussed to provide clues on interplay of social and technical influences on value co-creation processes. Results could foster expansion of the value co-creation concept and pave way for its operationalization in complex service system settings. Conceptualization of resource integration practices could also guide key stakeholders at HEIs to identify major challenges during value co-creation initiatives. Implications are discussed in the light of roles played by human and digital actors during three critical phases of value co-creation in expedience, engagement and evolution. Acknowledging the fact that opportunities and issues faced by higher education institutions might be like many other industries including tourism, public service, nursing and others; yet aim of using the case studies for in depth insights in this paper limits the statistical generalizability.


Sarwat Jahan,Shadi Hijazi,Wissale Mahdaoui

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 878-897
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.057

Teaching is an art, where the teacher communicates his knowledge using several teaching styles,
which facilitates in ensuring that students are presented with an overall learning environment that
can further promote their academic achievements and excellence. Though, this has remained the
centre of attention for decades, but still studies have frequently overlooked the student’s
perspectives that have left a void in the literature.For the very reason, the current investigation
has shed light on the role of teaching styles in driving quality of student learning and
achievement, where the study has been exclusively limited to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. For
the current investigation, the study has presented the qualitative information collected from 10
students based on interpretivism philosophy as it has helped to ensure that the findings of the
study are critical in nature, while assuring that the topic of interest (i.e. the role of teacher’s style
of students’ achievement, and the provision of quality learning environment) is sufficiently
addressed. Considering the latter, the study has considered the use of thematic analysis for the
information collected through interviews, where themes were formulated based on the common
findings. In reference to the findings, the study has found that teaching style refers to the
reasonable combination and application of skills formed by a teacher in long-term teaching
practice, which reflects the consistent and stable teaching psychological quality of teachers. In
addition, the study also found that students have preferred humorous and rational teaching styles,
as the former focuses on two-way communication to keep the classroom atmosphere quite
entertaining; whereas the latter focuses upon giving the students a feeling of being relaxed, calm
and peaceful environment, where logic prevails over other elements. Hence, both of the teaching
styles were found to yield better academic grades and overall achievement of students in their
respective domain as they are facilitated to learn in a unique environment.

Growing Fashion Consciousness; A Threat to Environment

Abdur Rehman Arif, Arman Khan, Shumaila Jabbar,Ali Akbar Pirzado,Alle Syeda,Waseem Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 898-910
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.058

The Study stands on an assumption that growing fashion consciousness leads towards a
general change oriented behavior and so escort towards an intense consumption pattern. To
fulfill that huge demand of all kinds, massive industrialization takes place, which is evidently
a threat to the environment. Study ascertains the fashion consciousness of only the most
neglected segment of the market to establish that people are getting fashion conscious to a
threatening level. This study identifies the fashion information sources, shopping preferences
and in particular, measures the fashion consciousness of the underappreciated segment as
mature female consumers in Pakistan. A comprehensive questionnaire is exposed to the
females aging 45 to onwards who were explained with every question in order to ensure the
validity of the instrument. It is found that mature women are fashion conscious but not as
much as they share information of fashion. Mature women are more concerned about comfort
than style and more concerned about style than brand name, which is a clear evidence of lack
of advertisement and focus of businesses on this wealthy and independent segment. Even then,
they are fashion conscious and acquire fashion information through catalogues, store display,
fashion shows, asking family members, and social gatherings. This amplifying fashion
consciousness leads to a change oriented behavior in general. People seek change in
everything around (even before it expiries) which will obviously generate innovative demands
and in result, industrialization will be at its peak; an obvious threat to the environment.

Observer’s congruent response when boss put their colleague’s down, A moderated mediation mechanism

Maria Rasheed, Dr. Farooq Anwar, Tayyab Ali, Ahmed Abdul Hameed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 911-926
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.059

Prior research mostly covers the instigator and target perspective of workplace incivility and
overlooked the third parties’ reaction. The current research aims to examine the congruent social
emotion of the observer after witnessing the incivility toward coworkers with the lens of
affective event theory. It also examines the behavioral response of the observer due to that social
emotion. Through the time-lagged survey conducted in the service industry, the results showed
that vicarious workplace incivility was positively associated with empathy towards a coworker,
that emotion is further positively associated with helping behavior towards victims. This
relationship is moderated by gender, such that females are more sensitive towards incivility.
Third parties experience positive social emotions of empathy and try to buffer the situation
through helping behavior. Our findings try to examine the interpersonal, target -directed
outcomes of vicarious workplace incivility. The results of the study contribute to both theory and

Property Investment in Kurdistan (Iraqi Kurdistan): A Case Study of Kurdistan Region of Iraq, from 2003-2020

Ranjdar Mustafa Ali, NawzadMajeed Hamawandy, Abdulkhaleq Nader Qader, Raed Mohammed Kakil

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 927-936
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.060

The construction of housing in Kurdistan has changed the face of major cities throughout the
region. Since 2003, sudden developments have seen ample structural components and massive
housing projects that have transformed their towns'' landscape. The increase in housing demand,
a booming economy, economic growth rates in the region, relative safety in Kurdistan have
fueled certain dimensions of Kurdistan''s development, causing many people from nearby
neighborhoods of Kurdistan to migrate into the region. This has required an increase in
employment opportunities from housing projects'' development and their ability to afford to
house (Doski, 2015, p. 18). The number of foreign and local businesses recruiting from the
current workers has been growing. The real estate boom that has engulfed Kurdistan since the
independence of Iraq in 2003 has been one of the drivers of such economic development in
Kurdistan. It can be anticipated that this growth will extend into the southern and central regions
of Iraq once the security environment there is secure. Travel participation has also helped boost
the Kurdistan''s economic development. The road infrastructure has also been expanded and
improved. New roads have been established, and Erbil International Airport will get a brand new
terminal with one of the world''s longest runways.


Rabia Mian, ChaudhryAbdul Rehman, Muhammad Rafiq, Sobia Nasir

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 937-945
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.061

Knowledge sharing is an important aspect of knowledge management and it is important and
progressively recognized for international business management. The aim of this study to
examine the impact of knowledge sharing tools (technology and organization rewards) on
knowledge transfer in the education sector of Pakistan Punjab. The survey method is used to
collect the data from public and private university employees from Punjab, Pakistan. By Using
the cluster random sampling method, the results of the structural equation model (SEM) and inter
reliability reveals the existence of internal reliability and validity of construct with a sample of
750. Results of the research work indicate that knowledge-sharing tools organization rewards
and technology have a significant impact on knowledge transfer. The results of the study also
confirm that motivation mediates the relationship among organization reward, technology, and
knowledge transfer. Furthermore, the organization reward and technology along with motivation
endorse the knowledge transfer to individuals and organizations. This study work contributed in
managerial and theatrical by considering technology and organization reward is knowledge
sharing tool effect on knowledge transfer with mediation analysis of motivation which improves
the organization effectiveness. The comparative study may be conducted in the future or in
another region of the country.

An Insight into the Needs Analysis of the Mobile Language Traveller App Design For Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) Via Mobile Platforms During COVID-19 Outbreak

Muhammad Sabri Sahrir, Taufik Ismail,Mohd Firdaus Yahaya,Muhamad AzharZubir

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 946-961
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.062

The teaching and learning of the Arabic language have been using traditional methods and
textbooks for a very long time. The language has been used and taught for various reasons
including communication purpose. However, in this era of Information and Communication
Technology (ICT), the needs to produce the interactive and technology-based learning and
teaching tools have been the area of research by various fields of knowledge. Hence, the huge
use of mobile gadgets as Tablet PC, smartphones, I-Pads and so on has the learners to adapt
with the mobile revolution in their learning preference of various educational application
such as many Apps that are available in Google Store. This project will be focusing on the
design and development of a mobile language guide application in Arabic language for
Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) VIA smart phones especially in Android supported
platforms. Once completed, the project is expected to produce a mobile App of teaching and
learning Arabic among Mutawwif (Umrah Tour Guide) via interactive mobile App prototype,
which could enhance the learners’ self-motivation and language learning for traveller’s

Social Distancing Effect on Workspace Nature and HRM: Evidence from Egypt and GCC

Osama Wagdi, Walid Abouzeid

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 962-993
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.063

This study investigates the practices of human resources management
(HRM) in Egypt and the Gulf Cooperation Council through the integration of
quantitative data (social distancing in the workplace) and qualitative data (attitude
toward altering the workplaces nature and human resources practices) using a survey
of 140 HRM personnel from seven nations. The study found that social distancing
explains 54% of the change in workplace nature, while social distancing and the
change in workplaces nature explain 32% of the change in HRM practices. However,
there is a distinction in the extent to which the characteristics of job location have
changed, as the number of people is a variable for HRM practices due to
COVID-19, with training needs and training tools changing the most during the
COVID-19 pandemic.


Ghulam Rasool Lakhan, Bahadur Ali Soomro, Amanullah Channa,Ifrah Jameel, Shabbir Ahmed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 994-1005
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.064

In the present era, the COVID-19 appeared as a dangerous virus that ruined all most
all economies of the globe. The present paper attempts to review the economic
problems and uncertainties that affected the Pakistani economy in the COVID-19
pandemic waves. The study is based on a desk review. The data are derived from
reliable sources to achieve the purpose of the study. The study's findings suggest that
the economy of Pakistan has confronted significant challenges in the pandemic. These
problems include economic and financial problems, business problems and firms
operating problems. Besides, the study provides evidence about the impact of
COVID-19 on revenue and employment within the firms of Pakistan.Furthermore, the
study's findings would provide some guidelines about the problems that exist in the
pandemic. Therefore, the government of Pakistan must take initiatives if any
pandemic may appear. Finally, the study may provide the summarized insights into
the economy of Pakistan, particularly concerning economics.

The effects of a training course in non-verbal communication skills of Iranian dental students

Sepideh Falah-Kooshki , Ahmad Sheibaninia , Jahanfar Jahanbani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1006-1018
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.065

Materials and Methods: Inthisclinicaltrial,77dental-schoolstudentsout of 104 samples whohadlessthan80%ofcommunicationskills’indicatorswereincludedandrandomlyallocatedintoexperimentalandcontrolgroups.The ones receiving more than 80 % were excluded from the study. Studentsallocatedtotheexperimentalgroupwereeducatedfor1hourincommunicationindicators,whilethecontrolgroupreceivednotraining.After2weeks,thecommunicationskillsofbothgroupswereevaluatedby 10 indicators whenworkingwithrealpatients.The evaluator, proficient in NVC skills, was blinded as to the groups.TheresultswereanalyzedbyMann-WhitneyUandFischerexacttestusingSPSSversion23.
Results:Bothgroupssharedsimilarstatisticsbeforestartingthecourse.Afterpassingthecourse,theexperimentalgroupdemonstratedsignificantlyhigherNVCskills(8.97±1.10vs.5.64±2.15,P<0.001), vs. the controlgroup. Seventeenstudents(44.7%) in the experimental groupshowedimprovementof4ormoreunitsinNVCsskillsaftertrainingbutnostudentsfrom thecontrolgroupshowedsimilarimprovement.(P=0.003).
Conclusions:EducationfocusingonenhancingNVCskillscouldimprovelevelsofcommunicationfordentalstudents. thus, Furtherinvestigationoftheclinicalimpactsofthesetypesofeducationalandformativeprogramsisrecommended.
Materials and Methods: Inthisclinicaltrial,77dental-schoolstudentsout of 104 samples whohadlessthan80%ofcommunicationskills’indicatorswereincludedandrandomlyallocatedintoexperimentalandcontrolgroups.The ones receiving more than 80 % were excluded from the study. Studentsallocatedtotheexperimentalgroupwereeducatedfor1hourincommunicationindicators,whilethecontrolgroupreceivednotraining.After2weeks,thecommunicationskillsofbothgroupswereevaluatedby 10 indicators whenworkingwithrealpatients.The evaluator, proficient in NVC skills, was blinded as to the groups.TheresultswereanalyzedbyMann-WhitneyUandFischerexacttestusingSPSSversion23.
Results:Bothgroupssharedsimilarstatisticsbeforestartingthecourse.Afterpassingthecourse,theexperimentalgroupdemonstratedsignificantlyhigherNVCskills(8.97±1.10vs.5.64±2.15,P<0.001), vs. the controlgroup. Seventeenstudents(44.7%) in the experimental groupshowedimprovementof4ormoreunitsinNVCsskillsaftertrainingbutnostudentsfrom thecontrolgroupshowedsimilarimprovement.(P=0.003).
Conclusions:EducationfocusingonenhancingNVCskillscouldimprovelevelsofcommunicationfordentalstudents. thus, Furtherinvestigationoftheclinicalimpactsofthesetypesofeducationalandformativeprogramsisrecommended.


Dawood Nawaz, Sarfraz Batool, Ishrat Fatima

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1019-1028
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.066

Pakistan is suffering from administrative problems since long time and there are many
challenges being face in the public institutions. Keeping in view the administrative issues and
prevalent bad governance, Pakistan needs to rationalise its administrative structure.There are
various aspects of this, including restructuring the whole administrative system which is
currently based generally on the federal-provincial-district divisions; introducing extensive
and across the board civil-services reforms; revisitingexisting policies and plugging policy
gaps.This study has employed analytical and descriptive research methodology to analyze the
administrativechallenges and problems in Pakistan by using the two main secondary sources;
research articles and books.The main objective of this study was to highlighted the
administrative problems and challenges which are being faced inPakistan.
Inshort,toachieveeconomicgrowthandtoimprovethequalityoflifeofthepeople,Pakistan and its
constituent provinces must bring about a radical change in the way in which they are
governed and managed, particularly with reference to macroeconomic management, proper
policy making, political stability, public administration, good governance, and adequacy of
institutional capacity.However, some solutions and recommendations are provided to
overcome these administrative problems and challenges

Evaluating TPACK Knowledge and Skills Among Arabic Pre-Service Teachers in Implementing Online Assessment During Movement Restriction Control (MCO) Of COVID-19

Muhammad Sabri Sahrir, Abdul RazifZaini, MohdAzrulAzlen Abd. Hamid, ZulkefliHamat, Taufik Ismail

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1029-1044
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.067

The importance of having the knowledge and skills in Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) among teachers when dealing with teaching via technology is very clear. In TPACK, there are three essential components that need to be practiced during teaching and learning in using technologies, including the current situation of COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of TPACK knowledge and skill among Arabic trainee teachers in implementing online teaching and assessment during Movement Restriction Control (MCO) of COVID-19 by the Malaysian government, whereby the schools are closed to face-to-face learning activities. The pre-service teachers were purposively selected among final year students of Bachelor of Education in Teaching Arabic as a Second Language, from the Kulliyah of Education, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM). They weresentto various secondary schools in Selangor to complete the graduation requirement of Bachelor of Education degree in teaching practicum. The research instruments were investigating the teachers’ knowledge about three essential components of TPACK, which include technology, content, and pedagogy as well as open-ended surveys on obstacles and challenges in home-based teaching and online assessment of Arabic language before and during MCO, online learning platforms used and further suggestions to improve the use of technology in implementing online assessment of Arabic language teaching in schools during pandemic. Thefindings showed that the understanding of the trainee teachers’ level of knowledge and understanding of TPACK is very good towards implementing online teaching and assessment during the home-based and online teaching during pandemic. The responses of online learning platforms used and proposed suggestions to improve the use of technology in implementing online assessment may also beneficial to teachers in preparing the online teaching and assessment in home-based setting during COVID-19 pandemic.


Yasir Aftab Farooqi, Dr. Chaudhry Abdul Rehman, Dr. Sumaira Rehman

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1045-1066
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.068

Of late, organizational behavior literature details the notion of work-family enrichment and more
attention was gained by the said concept. However, in previous studies supporting emerges from
the work and family front has ignored. The purpose of this research is to qualitatively explore the
role of family and work as predictors of family-to-work enrichment (FWE) and work-to-family
enrichment (WFE) among dual-career employees in higher education institutions of Pakistan.
Data were gathered through the semi-structured interview from 22 faculty members of
universities. Further, thematic analysis was applied by using NVivo-11 software. Findings
supported the family support and also the work support for developing both work-to-family and
family-to-work enrichment. The research signals the significance of ensuring organizational
support for having effective employees. This study extends the literature of work and family by
including role support for having FEW and WEF which is rarely studied in the Pakistani context.

Political Marginalization of Pakistani Transgender Community: A Case Study of District Bahawalpur

Shakil Akhtar, Rabia Sadiq, Nailakanwal, Junaid Mumtaz, Syed Adeel Ahmad Bukhari

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1067-1080
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.069

If all groups of any society are not treated equally and given with opportunities to work for their
betterment then that society cannot relish the zenith of prosperity and progress. Same goes with
political opportunities. Equal political participation is the beauty of any civilized and democratic
society. From the time of Greek political philosophers, it has been seen that a polity is respected
and even raised in status if the political participation and awareness of masses is high.
Correspondingly, in the 21st century a country with stable politics, democracy and highest equal
political opportunities is considered to be developed. Especially the political rights and role of
minorities-like women, transgender and religious minorities has great significance in political
development of a society. Sad to say, Pakistan lacks political participation of minorities. Political
development of Pakistan is at its lowest. This study focuses on the political participation of
transgender community in the district Bahawalpur Punjab, Pakistan. Semi-structured interviews
had been conducted. The study finds out that political participation of transgender community
can be surged if they are educated and reserved seats are being fixed for them. The study
recommends that government should make sure to provide educational facilities to transgender

A study on “Human resource analytics for decision making in international business machine in India and United States”

Angkita Borpatra Gohain, Archana Saikia

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1081-1094
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.070

For any organization, human resources (HR) are important. It brings with it, in
addition to experience, the capacity and technical skills that are essential for any organization's
long-term success. Organizations have often had trouble determining the efficiency, status, and
opportunities of their human resources. Organizations are looking for even more intelligent
choices, from attracting the right talent to maintaining the best talent. HR-analytics has been
mostly used in the Western IT industry, but it is now making inroads in the Indian IT market as
well. HR analytics has a lot of potential in the Indian IT industry, but HR systems, teams, and
people skills have a lot of flaws. This research explores the advantages and disadvantages of HR
analytics, as well as the role of HR analytics in decision-making at IBM, a major player in the
global IT industry. HR engagement, ethics in analytics, and artificial intelligence in HR and
analytics are the main factors in IBM's better use of HR analytics in better business decisions,
according to the study's findings.


Ibodulla Ismatul laevich Soliev, Rahmonjon Mamadjonovich Ahmedov, Abdulhakimov Zuhrali Tursunalievich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1095-1102
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.071

This article develops ways to accelerate the development of small business and private entrepreneurship in the Republic of Uzbekistan, prepares scientific developments and practical recommendations for future development of the industry.

The Impact of Heuristic & Prospect Biases on Investment Performance- A Mediating Role of Risk Tolerance

Anam Qamar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1103-1129
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.072

Purpose –The aim of this study is to examine the influence of heuristic and prospect behavioral
biases on investment performance along with mediating role of risk tolerance.
Design/methodology/approach – The study has executed PLS-SEM to test the stated
hypotheses, anchoring bias and self-control bias are selected as independent variables, risk
tolerance as mediating variable whereas investment performance has been incorporated as the
dependent variable. To know the individual variables relative importance and performance the
IPMA analysis has been also executed. The sample size comprised 100 individual investors in
the context of Karachi, Pakistan. The questionnaire has been a primary data collection tool
whereas the convenience sampling method has been adopted.
Findings –The empirical findings reveal the direct and significant impact of anchoring bias on
investment performance whereas self-control bias is found to be statistically insignificant on the
investment performance of individual investors, lastly the mediating role of risk tolerance is
found to be significant in the context of anchoring bias, self-control bias, and investment
Originality/value –This study contributes to the existing literature through its conceptual
framework, literature is very scarce regarding the impact of anchoring bias and self-control along
with mediating role of risk tolerance on investment performance according to the researcher best
knowledge, this study aims to fulfill this gap; the findings will help investors, professionals,
regulators to get the practical insights about heuristic and prospect biases impact on investment
performance and the way risk tolerance to interact with these biases and shapes the investment
performance of individual investors.
Managerial Implications-The empirical evidence has ascertained the existence of irrationality
in equity markets this will help the policymakers or managers to recognize the behavior of
investors and the risk tolerance mechanism thatled to inefficiencies


Muhammad Waqas Javed, Jibran Jamshed, Syed Wajdan Rafay Bukhari, Shaza Mahar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1130-1145
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.073

The instance study is unique of its nature providing a comprehensive analysis on right of
privacy and data protection laws in Pakistan with special reference to CCTV surveillance; its
scope in the light of judgments of Apex or Higher Courts in Pakistan. It finds that right of
privacy is interconnected with other fundamental right of life or right of dignity. CCTV
surveillance in Pakistan is ever increasing and posing a threat to right of privacy; it deliberates
the arguments about such surveillance in public or private domains and its legality. Further, it
tries to intricate the existing legal framework in Pakistan either working as a mean of safeguard
for privacy or a source of infringement of it for or against CCTV surveillance. Meanwhile, the
study also presents critical analysis of the Proposed Data Protection Bill (PDPB), 2020 in the
light of General Data Protection Regulations (GDPR), 2018.

A Study On Capital Structure Of Domestic And Multinational Companies


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1146-1151
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.074

Capital structure is the composition of debt and equity securities that are used to finance a company’s assets. The choice of debt and equity is an important decision for the corporate sector because an optimal choice of financing decision increases the value of the firm. The Multinational corporations (MNC) has benefits over the Domestic companies (DC) with regard to debt raising capacity, wider options for raising capital, greater options to generate profits, diversification benefits, economies of scale, etc. This paper investigates the determinants of capital structure of domestic and multinational companies during the period 2010 to 2020. The study concluded that the significant capital structure determinants are Size, Return on Sales, Return on Assets and Profit.

A Study On Financial Performance Analysis In Salem Steel Plant At Salem


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1152-1157
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.075

Today SAIL is one of the largest industrial entities in India. Its strength has been the diversified range of quality Steel product catering to the domestic, as well as the export market sandal large pool of technical and professional expertise. Today, the accent in Salem Authority of Indian Limited (SAIL) is to continuously adept to the competitive business environment and excel as a business organization, both within and outside in India. Hence, this study was undertaken to investigate into the financial performance of Salem Steel Plant at Salam District,Tamilnadu understand their performance in a highly competitive environment. The study revealed that Salem Steel Plant in the study area have not performed well on all the parameters of financial performance. On plant performed best on one parameter, but worst on another which prove that the overall financial performance of the steels has not been quite good and all the Steel Plants have to make improvements on different steels.

Aesthetic aspects of the teacher's professiogram primary classes.

Dustova Dildora Sobirjanovna, Abdullaev Sayfulla Fayzullaevich

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1158-1163
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.076

Following article deals with some aspects of the formation of the esthetic culture of
students in the process of teaching the Russian language. It analyzes the features of the
upbringing of the esthetic culture of future teachers of primary education.

Timeshare or Club rest as a lever for the development of tourism in the Republic of Uzbekistan

Eshtaev Alisher, Abduganiev Abdulaziz

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1164-1168
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.077

This article does discuss an essence of Time Share. Moreover, main purpose of this
article is to investigate Time Share and its strengths in order to enhance one of the strategic
realms of economy of Republic of Uzbekistan. Consequently, the juxtaposition of views and
experience of foreign countriesprovided in this article.

Bibliometric analysis of Financial Risk Management

Iftikhar Ahmad, ShahidIqbal, Farah Naz, ShahzadJamil, IjlalHaider

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1169-1181
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.078

Financial risk management enhances financialperformance and effectiveness, and it has been
recently received research recognition and momentum.This study aims to adopt a
bibliometric analysis of financial risk management to identify the research trends and
opportunities related to diverse types of research papers published in journals and
conferences indexed by Web of Science for the years 2004-2018. The main objectives of this
study include finding the research trend of financial risk management publications and
citations, top research areas, the most influential papers based on citation count, the top
supportive funding agencies, and the future research direction. This bibliometric study
indicates that the interest of researchers is increasing in financial risk management every year
due to an unpredictable environment and economic situation. The number of citations to
financial risk management research papers has been growing. The top research areas in
financial risk management include business economics, environmental sciences ecology,
engineering, mathematics, and operation research management science. The analysis
indicates that the National Natural Science Foundation of China supports most of the
financial risk management research by funding the research. This reflects the vast interests
and trends of financial risk management among researchers. This study can be a valuable
learning point for young researchers to find attractive, relevant research insights
withinfinancial risk management.

Ho Chi Minh's Ideology on revolutionary Medical Ethics

Le Thi Tam Hieu

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1182-1196
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.079

President Ho Chi Minh, a hero of national liberation, a world cultural celebrity has
left us a huge and extremely valuable spiritual legacy, which we have not been able to exploit
the full extent of that heritage in both breadth and depth, including his ideology on medical
ethics. Researching on his medical ethics is important in improving the medical ethics of
Vietnamese doctors today.
The author uses the method of analysis, synthesis, and comparison of data sources to study
Ho Chi Minh's ideology on medical ethics. The research results show that Ho Chi Minh's
ideology on medical ethics shows the unity between morality and politics - a characteristic in
Ho Chi Minh's ideology, which is the revolutionary medical ethics in general and the medical
ethics of the socialist doctor, including ethical standards to regulate the perception and
behavior of doctors in relation to patients, profession, colleagues, society and themselves.

The Meaning Of The Lotus’s Symbol In Bubbhist Philosophy For VietNam Now

Dr. Pham Phuong Anh, Nguyen Thien Tin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1197-1210
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.080

Among the great civilizations in the world, it is impossible not to mention India,
one of the cradles of Eastern civilization, the paradise land of many religious
philosophyschools. This is the place where a transcendent human being, a great spiritual
leader of mankind, was born Siddhattha Gotama - Shakyamuni Buddha, the founder of the
Buddhist philosophical. The humanistic ideas of Buddhism have always had a positive
value on human life until now. The symbol “Lotus” is not only an auspicious image but
also represents the moral and human philosophies of Buddhism and the meaning of the
Lotus which is valuable to Vietnamese society in contributing to building the solidarity,
mutual love - the beauty of modern Vietnamese people and moral education for people
according to the motto of living a good life and promoting social progress.

Prospects for the development of corporate social responsibility in Polandafter the COVID-19 pandemic

Jakub Kubiczek

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1211-1217
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.081

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic raised many questions, including these
concerning the future of CSR. The aim of this study is to present the prospects for the
development of corporate social responsibility in Poland after the COVID-19 pandemic. The
number of good practices in Poland is increasing every year and the dynamics was maintained
during the pandemic, despite the fact that some sectors faced a difficult economic situation.
Specialattention should be paid to enterprises that are financed with public money, as they
were the ones thatstarted activities for the benefit of local communities during the pandemic.
The post-pandemic period will ensure the stabilization of the economic situation and may
constitute the foundation for the further development of corporate social responsibility


Mahkmudova D.M. M.

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1218-1230
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.04.082

Process of development the strategy of financial stability includes definition of the
most effective directions according to the solution of goals which is followed by search and an
assessment of alternative versions of possible strategic financial decisions on criterion of
increase in level of financial stability of enterprises of textile industry.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1231-1242
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.083

Indian banks are trying to make your life easier. Not just bill payment, you can make
investments, shop or buy tickets and plan a holiday at your fingertips. In fact, sources from
ICICI Bank tell us, "Our Internet banking base has been growing at an exponential pace over
the last few years. Currently around 78 percent of the bank's customer base is registered for
Internet banking." To get started, all you need is a computer with a modem or other dial-up
device, a checking account with a bank that offers online service and the patience to complete
about a one-page application- which can usually be done online.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1243-1254
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.084

Customer satisfaction is a term frequently used in marketing. It is a measure of how
products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation.
Customer satisfaction, this study is aimed to analysis the customer satisfaction in
villupuram district, how the people choosing the brand of cellular phone and what are
the parameter to choose the selected brands. Brand preference reflects a desire to use
a particular company's products or services, even when there are equally priced and
equally-available alternatives. In fact, more often than not, brand preference indicates a
desire to seek out a specific product or service, even when it requires paying more or
expending more effort to obtain it. Brand preferences are important to companies
because it provides an indicator of their customers' loyalty, the success of their
marketing tactics, and the strength of their respective brands. Measure of brand loyalty
in which a consumer will choose a particular brand in presence of competing brands,
but will accept substitutes if that brand is not available. Brand preference is strongly
linked to brand choice that can influence the consumer decision making and activate
brand purchase, many brands



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1255-1265
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.085

The development of e-banking in each country is dependent on the speed of internet
access, the features of new online banking, and the frequency of e-banking usage. In the
banking industry, e-banking is formed when there is a combination between the
information technology and the functions of banks and financial institutions. Internet
banking was first introduced in Malaysia in June 2000 when Bank Negara Malaysia
gave permission to the local banks to offer Internet banking services. To satisfy
customer’s need, many types of products and services were provided by the banks
through Internet banking websites.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1266-1271
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.086

Mobile service is one of the largest industries in the world. In this market, competition is on the
rise through economic opening. The region's use of mobile telephones was promoted by private
companies. It's the consumer demand today for telecom networks. Mobile providers must take
note of customer opinions and deals on the market. Mobile providers must identify customers '
desires and influence the factors before developing any service or deal. In this context, the
research document focuses on the factors which are most relevant to customers when using
mobile service providers. Telecom is one of the main infrastructure markets of our country, the
government of India said. The study was done in a well-structured schedule. The public
telecommunications sector was able to achieve universal service to all the villages protected by
global class standards under economic liberalization, privatization and competition politics in
India and make the broadcasting of telecommunications open. The purpose of this paper is to
analyze the customer satisfaction on different types of mobile service providers and widely used
mobile network in cuddalore

Analysis of the Awareness Level of Islamic Economics Doctoral Students at the State Islamic University of North Sumatera in Using Halal Products

Ismail, Herwan Nafil, Yenni Arfah, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1272-1280
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.087

Access to halal products or food is very easy in Indonesia, so consumers do not pay too much
attention to the halalness of a product. Halal awareness is needed to answer the needs of Muslims
for halal products. The purpose of this research is to analyze halal awareness and the factors that
influence it. WarpPLS 7.0 program is used to help analyze the effect of the variables studied.
Structure Equation Modeling (SEM-PLS) analysis was used in this quantitative type of research
with doctoral students of Islamic economics at the State Islamic University of North Sumatra as the
sample. The results showed that the religiosity variable had a significant effect on halal awareness,
the halal certificate variable and the knowledge variable also had a significant effect on halal
awareness. Together, the three exogenous variables have a significant influence on the endogenous


Nirmadarningsih Hiya, Diana Hasyim, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1281-1299
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.088

This study aims to determine the effect of Bank of Indonesia Certificate (SBI) Interest
Rates, Debt to Equity Ratio (DER), Return On Equity (ROE), and Earning Per Share (EPS) on
Stock Returns of Manufacturing Companies in the Food and Beverage Sub-sector listed on the
Indonesia Stock Exchange. This research is all industries that areincluded in the food and beverage
sub-sector manufacturing companies. The data used in this research is secondary data. The
sampling technique was carried out using the purposive sampling method, namelyselecting samples
based on specific criteria. The research sample was obtained from as many as ten companies from
2014 to 2018.
The methods used in this research are descriptive statistics, classical assumption test (normality test,
multicollinearity test, heteroscedasticity test, and autocorrelation test), multiple linear regression,
coefficient of determination, and hypothesis testing (partially and simultaneously). The results of
this study indicate that partially the SBI interest rate has a significant positive effect on stock
returns, and Earning Per Share (EPS) has a significant positive effect on stock returns. Meanwhile,
Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) and Return On Equity (ROE) have no significant effect on stock
returns. Simultaneously the interest rates of SBI, DER, ROE, and EPS have a significant effect on
stock returns.

Rola gospodarki cyrkulacyjnej w rozwoju miast (The Role of a Circular Economy in the Urban Development)

Magdalena Piłat- Borcuch

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1300-1305
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.089

The purpose of the article is to present the problems of the circular economy in an
urban context. An economy whose system is based on raw materials obtained from waste,
which allows not only to reduce costs related to the functioning of cities, but to improve the
of life in cities. The article presents the change in the logic of the functioning of cities,
highlighting their ecological face. The assumptions of the circular economy were presented,
emphasizing the necessity and irreversibility of implementing its assumptions. Then,
reference was made to Chinese and European examples of the implementation of the circular
economy assumptions.

The Relationship between Macroeconomic Factors and Indian Stock Market

Dr.Ashoka M.L., Hamid Reza Keihani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1306-1312
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.090

The main aim of the study to examine the impact of the macroeconomic variables i.e. inflation
and exchange rate on the Indian stock market especially on National Stock Exchange (NSE) –
Nifty 50 index, the data used for the period from 2010 to 2020 based on the secondary data
collected from NSE official website to evaluate the relationship with inflation and exchange rate.
Linear regression model was designed and used to evaluate whether independent variables i.e
inflation, oil price and GDP growth rate has significant relationship on dependent variable stock
market or not. The regression results of the study reveal that there is a statistical negative
relationship between inflation and the Indian stock market and whereas, oil price and GDP
growth rate has a statistically significant positive relationship on Indian stock market growth.

The Effect of Risk Management on Financial Performance: the case of Commercial Banks of Ethiopia

Gidey Yifer, Dr.NageswaraRao Thadvuai, Dr.AntihaLourdu James

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1313-1324
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.091

Risk management has become an important topic for financial institutions, especially
since the business sector of financial services is related to conditions of uncertainty.
The turmoil of the financial industry emphasizes the importance of effective risk
management procedures. The aim of this paper was therefore to identify the impact of risk management and its impact on bankperformance on the Ethiopian banks performance. Balanced fixed effect panelregression was used for the data of seven commercial banks in the sample covered theperiod from 2004 to 2015. Four risk management variables that affect banksperformance were selected and analysed. The results of panel data regressionanalysis showed that operational risk indicator (CIR) had negativeand statistically significant impact on banks performance. Capital adequacy ratiohad positive and statistically significant impact on banks performance. In addition this, the study analysed by descriptive statistical tools and on hypothesis testing using regression model. This leads the researcher to conclude in the last section that banks with good risk management policies have a lower risk and relatively higher return on asset. Finally, liquidity ratio and cost to income ratio are significant key drivers of performance of commercials banks in Ethiopia. Indeed focusing and reengineering the institutions alongside these indicators could enhance the profitability as well as the performance of commercial banks in Ethiopia.

Organisational Agility and 7Ps of the marketing mix for the post-COVID-19 period: A case study of the Indian informal food sector

Uma VakadaeRamkumar, ManivannanAnand Shankar Raja, Joseph Varghese Kureethara

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1325-1339
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.092

This study uncovers the reality of the COVID-19 epidemic, acting as a significant hurdle for
small restaurants' sustainability.The study used a purely qualitative methodology dealing with
data collected from the industry to frame effective sustainability strategies to revamp the
business.Hence,in-depth interviews to capture the real problems faced by restaurants were
conducted.From the study, we understood that big citiessuch asChennai, Bengaluru and
Thiruvananthapuram took initiatives in the post-COVID-19 crisis to bring about changes in the
business process, giving importance to online ordering and delivery, new cuisines and more
hygienic transparency. Small cities such asCoimbatore, Thiruvallaand Kochi are still confident
of running their businesses, but there may not be a drastic change in the process. However, their
expectationsof helpfrom the government are high. Three major factors are being considered to be
cornerstone elements, which are health, cleanliness and hygiene. In this research, the scope is
limited only to restaurants in big and small cities, whilelarge-sized star category hotels have not
been considered.


PhD. Dat, Nguyen Van

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1340-1350
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.093

Famers are facing a credit constrain which limit them to reinvest on their farming activities. In this
context, formal credit plays a major role in their production. This study employs mixed
methodology including quantitative and qualitative analysis. Theoretical models have been tested
by using analysis of reliability Cronbach’s Alpha, EFA factor analysis, and multiple linear
regression analysis. The findings suggest eight factors which significantly impact the accessibility
to credit of farmers in Dak Nong province. Asset ownership appears to be an important factor as
collateral for their loan applications.


Muhammad Ali Khan, Sarmad Ali Khaskheli, Hamid Ali Kalwar, Muhammad Ahmed Kalwar , Hussain Bux Marri, Murlidhar Nebhwani

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1351-1367
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.094

The purpose of this research paper was to suggest the optimum service level of queuing
system of reception and the outpatient department during COVID-19 pandemic. The data was
collected from the reception and OPD of the ABC public hospital of Hyderabad. Data
included, the arrival times, service times of patients and number of doctors and receptionist at
the workplace, their salaries and waiting cost of patients. Input analysis of patients` arrivals
and service was conducted by in input analyzer of Rockwell Arena software. TORA
optimization software was used for the calculation of performance measures. Various costs of
queuing system were calculated in MS Excel and the required graphs were also plotted. After
the in-depth analysis, it was revealed that one receptionist and one doctor should be increased
to bring optimality in the queuing system and patients` flow. After this decision, waiting cost
of patients decreased to greater extent.


Nguyen Van Uy, Thai Thi Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Huyen

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1368-1378
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.095

The study is based on Chase 1994's approach to management capacity of head nurses and uses
linear regression analysis to determine the relationship between the components of head nurses'
management capacity with other influencing factors. The results show that factors such as age,
seniority of management, degrees, seniority of work, and management degrees explain 39.1% of
the change in professional capacity and 56% of the change in professional competence
explaining 52% of the change in thinking ability, explaining 33% of the change in leadership
skills and explaining 34% of the change in management skills of financial management. The
relationship between management seniority and professional skills is statistically significant and
negatively correlated. The relationship between qualifications, working seniority and human
resource management skills is statistically significant and positively correlated. The relationship
between qualifications, management degrees and thinking skills of head nurses is statistically
significant and positively correlated. In addition, the research results also show that the
relationship between the influencing factors and the components of the management capacity of
head nurses is not statistically significant.


Abi Waqqosh, HenyLiya Hasibuan, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1379-1387
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.096

This research is a quantitative type of research that aims to determine the relationship
between GDP, Exchange Rate and Oil Prices on the State Budget Deficit. The variables used in this
study consisted of 3 independent variables and 1 dependent variable. The sample in this study is
Indonesia from 1988 to 2018. The analysis model uses Partial Least Square with the help of the
WarpPls 7.0 application. Partial Least Square is a statistical data analysis methodology that is at the
intersection between regression models, structural equation models, and multiple table analysis
methods. The results show that gross domestic product has a significant negat ive effect on the
APBN deficit, the exchange rate has an insignificant negative effect on the APBN deficit, and oil
prices the world has an insignificant positive effect on the state budget deficit

Determinants Influencing The Application of Management Accounting: The Case of Vietnam


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1388-1402
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.097

The study aimed to determine the factors influencing the level of application of
management accounting in feed production firms in Vietnam. Data were collected from the
survey of 228 feed production firms in Vietnam. The study employs the combination of
qualitative and quantitative methods with building multivariate regression models of
determinants affecting the application of management accounting in those firms. The
results contribute to building a multivariate regression model of factors affecting the
application of management accounting in food production firms. Based on the findings,
some recommendations are proposed for improving the effectiveness of applying
management accounting in Vietnamese food production firms.


JensolinAbithaKumari J, DrPreeti R Gotmare

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1403-1413
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.098

The Indian E-commerce industry is growing rapidly due to outbreak of pandemic, rapid increase
in use of smartphones and access to high speed internet have resulted in customers looking for
convenience by making online purchase thereby saving time and cost. Technology plays an
inevitable role in helping ecommerce firms maximize their profit by analyzing customer
behavior online, making recommendations and providing personalized pricing. This paper will
focus of understanding and analyzing the present scenario in the online retail space to explore the
following concerns which is a point of discussion in this field. Are customers really being treated
fairly by ecommerce firms? Are customers guided to make purchase through recommendation
engines and personalized pricing and end up paying more as firms are able to identify their
willingness to pay more? This provides a qualitative study to answer these questions.


Tran My Hai Loc

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1414-1426
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.099

The COVID-19 pandemic, which has had a broad and deep influence on
all countries, is currently unfolding in a complex manner. The world economy has
entered a deep recession. Vietnam, a country with a high level of economic openness and
substantial international connectivity, has also been hit by the COVID-19 outbreak.
Vietnam's economy, on the other hand, has maintained its development, with an
anticipated GDP growth rate of 2,91 percent. Following the COVID-19 pandemic,
Vietnam is progressively becoming a promising market for attracting foreign direct
investment due to key socioeconomic policies and goals, as well as the country's
remarkable advantages and position in the international arena.

Dimensions of Consumer Satisfaction By Buying a Mitsubishi Brand Vehicle

Ahmad Aswan Waruwu,Harianto, Iskandar Muda, Andri Soemitra, Sugianto

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1427-1435
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.100

PT. New Marwa or Mitsubishi Indonesia Medan branch is engaged in investment in
Mitsubishi brand car loans. The problem faced is a decrease in sales turnover. This study aims to
determine whether price, product quality, and service quality simultaneously influence consumer
satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja Medan. This research uses multiple linear regression models.
The distribution of questionnaires to a sample of 91 respondents. The data analysis technique used
is the quantitative method with the help of SPSS version 16.0. The results showed that the price
partially had a positive and significant effect on consumer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja.
Product quality is partially positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM
Raja. Service quality is partially positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction at
Mitsubishi SM Raja. Price, product quality and service quality simultaneously have a positive and
significant effect on customer satisfaction at Mitsubishi SM Raja. Adjusted R Square 0.751 or the
determination of the remaining 75.1% 24.9% are other factors outside themodel.

India’s Urban Growth in Recent Times: Need for Sustainable Urban Development Strategies

M. Mahadeva

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1436-1450
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.101

India’s urbanisation process can be characterised as divisive and uneven, owing to
lack of sustainable public strategies benefitting to all sizes of cities and towns in the country. The
urbanisation is highly inclined to major urban centres, including the state capitals and is
conspicuously uneven, due to improper development of public infrastructure and public services,
especially in the small and medium towns. The urbanisation process has largely driven by the
economic considerations like increased employment opportunities, higher income earnings and
other social benefits and comforts than the human settlement challenges. Having been promoted
and nurtured the main urban centres, the urbanisation process has not only divided the
settlements over the decades but also displaced smallest towns in the recent years. The small and
medium towns being the settlements of low-income groups and the immediate tiny service
centres, continuing to suffer without the basic socio-economic infrastructure. Realisation of the
urban outcomes although has led to the public intervention in the late 80s but its effectiveness to
ensure sustainable urban development is far from satisfaction. This is largely due to mandatory
participation in expenditure sharing by the states and due to lack of political will for the subregional
development. As a result, the impact of IDSMT is not widespread across the country but
limited to selected major states, which have had the capacity to share the public expenditure and
exhibited the political will. Above all, complete abandonment of the ongoing strategic
development without adequate alternative design is a serious setback to decent and orderly urban
life at the hitherto neglected small and medium towns. The emergent urban challenges have been
discussed in greater details and this paper offers a sustainable policy imperative, as contributions
to the effective public intervention, to achieve the desired goals of the inclusive urbanisation and
orderly urban life in the country.

Israel: Transport costs and customs duty - is on you The increase in customs value in Israel, due to the increase in transport prices – the problem, and the way to the solution

Adv. Omer Wagner

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1451-1453
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.102

In the past year, sea freight prices have risen sharply, an increase that has not been
remembered for many years.
Thus, according to various publications, about a year ago, renting a container for sea
transportation from China to Israel, costed about 2,000$, and today, the same
transportation costs about 15,000$.
According to the publications, the reasons for this significant increase are due, among
other things, to the COVID-19 crisis, global shortages of ships, declining competition in
the field, and containers of contagious demand. In addition, there is a "Made of Israel"
reason, since due to the congestion at ports in Israel, there are ships that prefer not to dock
in Israel, and then the number of ships that can dock in Israel is even smaller2.
Apart from the increase in transportation costs, which is expected to lead to a wave of
price increases in the sale of products in Israel, there is another parameter that is slightly
pushed to the margins, and that is the increase in the value of goods for customs purposes,
due to rising transportation prices. This increase in prices leads to further collection of
customs duties, purchase tax and import taxes, due to the increase in value.
As I will present in this review, in my opinion - the Israeli law already allows the state to
facilitate importers at this point - and similar and other facilitations have been made in the