Print ISSN: 2204-1990

Online ISSN: 1323-6903

Volume 27, Issue 5

Volume 27, Issue 5, Winter and Spring 2021

Performance of Public Universities in Pakistan: Mediating Role of Cultural Factors


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.001

The main objective of the current research is to assess the mediating role of organisational cultural between entrepreneurial orientation, structural factor and performance of public universities. The contribution of universities in the development of any country is an undeniable fact. The previous studies emphasised on such aspects, as structural factors that affect universities performance but the role of cultural factors have been ignored. The current study explores cultural factors as mediating variable between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The current research applied a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. We developed, through an in-depth desktop research, a questionnaire that was distributed by mailed/postal survey to the randomly selected 415 respondents working in Pakistani public universities. The collected data was analysed using structural equation modelling (SEM) with the help of SmartPLS 3.2.7, a widely used data analytical tool. Out study finds that cultural factors significantly mediate the relationship between structural factors, entrepreneurial factors and performance of public universities. The university management at different level is expected to enhance competencies of conducting high quality teaching, research and contribution to wider society through utilisation of scarce resources and creating a congenial cultural environment to maximize outcome from the available strength and opportunities and overcome the weakness and challenges. The findings and recommendations are expected to add value to the current body of literature in the higher education and particular value addition will be for the Pakistani universities.   

Exploring Elements of Naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge

Ramsha Ishaq; Abdur Razaq; Khan Sardaraz; Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 13-22
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.002

This paper explores the elements of naturalism in Hardy’s The Mayor of Casterbridge (2004)
from Emile Zola’s dimension of naturalism. The major issue of the paper is that hereditary and
environment control human’s actions. It also investigates how these two elements change our
destiny and course of life. Emile Zola’s ideas have been used as tools for collecting data in this
qualitative study. The paper found out that person’s own actions are not totally responsible for
his failure, however human nature has significant role in changing their life too. Besides, the
paper observes that nature, however unseen, dominates over all aspects of human life. The paper
opens up the new ways of knowledge in the mainstream studies.

A Transcendentalist Critique of Herman Hesse’s Siddhartha

Saira Bibi, Muhammad Ramzan, Naseer Muhammad, Dr. Nijat Ullah Khan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 23-29
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.003

The paper is an attempt to find out the ways of achieving eternal peace, perfection, and
recognizing self and God in Herman Hesse’s novel Siddhartha (2003) from the prospective of
Transcendentalism. The main issue of the paper is to explore how far the elements of
Transcendentalism flow through the text of the selected novel and how characters achieve
their goal by recognizing self and individuality. Herman Hesse and Transcendentalists are
well known for spiritual themes relating God, self, nature, and perfection. This qualitative
study finds out that the novel is abundant in themes borrowed from Transcendentalism. The
research in this way opens further avenues for analyzing the text through the perspectives of

Integration of the Three Religions in Chinese Ideological History: Four Stages And Three Dimensions


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.004

There is a very remarkable phenomenon in the Chinese ideological history which is known as ‘the integration of the three religions’. The three religions refers to Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. Since its introduction into China in 2nd century B.C., after a long fusion with local Confucianism and Taoism, Buddhism has finally succeeded in taking its roots in Middle Kingdom. Standing side by side with Confucianism and Taoism, It has become the mainstream of Chinese ideology and culture. During the process of fusion, the three schools of thought of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism have jointly formed the three cornerstones of Chinese traditional culture. Based on the fusion of Buddhism, Chinese Confucianism and Taoism, this paper explores the four stages and three dimensions of the integration of the these three religions in China

Study on Factors Influencing the Choice of Investors towards Mutual Funds

Nittan Arora; Dr. Sonia Chawla

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 41-57
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.005

The study is based on a sample of 200 qualified respondents chosen using multistage random
sampling to understand the influence of various factors on investment decision and choice of
investment towards mutual funds. The article identifies association of attributes risk perception,
investment pattern and risk taking ability with demographic factors. Study mainly focuses on the
factors influencing the choice of investors towards mutual funds and the impact of demographic
factors on risk perception, investment pattern and risk taking ability of mutual fund investors.
283 respondents contacted for getting 200 mutual funds investors. Chi-square & Henry Garret
Rating techniques applied for analysis the data. Regular return on schemes has emerged to be the
most important factor and less Procedure least important factor that affects the choice of the
investors towards selecting mutual funds. Most of the demographic factors have no significant
association with investment pattern, risk perception and risk taking ability.

Thoroughly examining the influence of managerial accounting on organizational performance with Heckman two-step technique

Quang Linh Huynh

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.006

The implementation of managerial accounting practices in business has been broadly
recognized as a determinant of organizational performance. Earlier studies have not taken
sample selection bias problem into consideration when examining this relationship. The
current work scrutinizes the relation from managerial accounting adoption to organizational
performance by employing Heckman two-step technique. The data was collected from 302
publicly listed enetrprises in Vietnam’s main Stock Exchanges. The findings suggest there
exists sample selection bias in the causal link from the implementation of managerial
accounting practices to organizational performance. The current research is helpful to
managerial accounting scholars as well as business executives, in shedding light on the
association between managerial accounting practices and organizational performance. The
findings could help directors in their business decisions on adopting managerial accounting
practices which should correspond to their organizational characteristics and business
environment, where they can obtain the best organizational performance.

Approach to the assessment of the financial and accounting risks with digital economy conditions for projects (representation)

Heyder G. Wannes Alkarawy, Mohammed Madlool Al-Sultani; Hind Adnan; Nasser Jassem Nasser Al-Ssadi; Ahmed Abd Zaid Abedi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 68-82
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.007

The digitization of the economy in the modern world has become an inevitable process that
objectively affects all areas of society and determines the direction of its development. The
importance of the study is evidenced by the high degree of modern development combined with the
constant transformation. In the process of informing the economy, the implementation of the
principles of digitizing the economy by an organization is impossible without the use of tools that
can ensure the continuous work on making changes to the current economic system. These tools are
(acting) projects. Which called for classifying projects (representation) into the five groups. The
numerical procedures for project risk (representation) are defined from three scenarios in which
each scenario and its risks are identified. The evaluation of the assessed factors of the digital
(representation) project was developed on a scale of 3 weight points for each risk, as well as
calculating the importance of risks regarding the not optimal level for a fraction of the cost of the
project and Implementing (feasibility) the project in decision-making of choose the project
(representation) or Non-continuity of the project (representation) during implementation. Which
indicates the importance and importance of this risk to the project and to the financial stability of
the company as a whole

Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction with The lastmile Delivery Service of The Food and Beverage Industry E-Commerce in Hanoi City


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 83-100
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.008

The purpose of this article is to analyze the factors affecting
customer satisfaction with the use of last-mile delivery service in the food and
beverage industry in e-commerce in Hanoi.The authors examine the impact of
factors on customer satisfaction from 2015 to 2021 using the SERVQUAL
service quality model combined with the SERVPERF perceived level model,
and the American customer satisfaction index model - ACSI. The results
show a relatively significant impact of several factors such as reliability,
assurance, empathy and perceived value. In addition, income and gender
factors also affect customer satisfaction

A Systematic Review of the Relationship Between Human Resource Management, Ethnic Diversity, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Performance

Nnamoko Faith Daberechukwu, Mohd Fauzi Kamarudin

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 101-119
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.009

The employee is an integral part of any organization, the job performance of the
employee is linked to his/her job satisfaction, and this influences the employee’s level of
motivation on the job which directly reflects on the organizational productivity. The
human resource management (HRM) has the key role of ensuring that the rights of each
employee are respected as well as ensuring the protection of interests and job satisfaction
of the employees. This study seeks to examine the relationship between the human
resource management, ethnic diversity, job satisfaction, and organizational productivity,
highlighting the role of the human resource management on the management of ethnic
diversity, job satisfaction as well as organizational performance. This paper is based on
previous research studies data from google scholar from the year 2010 to 2020. 19
articles were found related to the search keywords. This paper would be relevant for
further study on the relevant areas to tackle to improve the organizational performance as
well as its productivity.

Establishing the Reliability &Validity of Scale for Smart Roads: Examining the Mediating-Moderating effects of government policies, management support, beliefs, attitude & behavior

Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 120-159
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.010

Smart roads have transformed the conventional roads into more efficient and drivers friendly,
however, the transition is not easy for both developed and developing nations. Therefore, the
successful development of smart roads is possible if these countries adequately address the sociopolitical,
psychological, organizational, cultural, financial, technological issues besides issues
related to government policies, public-private partnership and support, the belief, attitude, and
behavior. This study is an effort in the same line. Data was collected from Canada, France and
Saudi Arabia. PLS-SEM was used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression was run for
moderation. The study found that innovative culture, public-private partnership, green energy,
safety and security, economic sustainability, government policies, top management support,
attitude and behavior are crucial for the development of smart roads. This study also suggeststhat
cultural issues need to be addressed for the success of smart roads.

The phenomenon of mobbing among young employees in relation to the size of the organization in Poland

Szymon Jarosz, Karol Gozdecki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 160-175
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.011

The article is deals with the phenomenon of mobbing affects young people taking their first steps on the labour market in relation to the size of the organization. It is obvious that mobbing has a deep impact on individuals. Nevertheless, it also has profound, consequences for management in the organization, quality of management and atmosphere in the organization, which consequently translates into the performance of the whole organization. The objectives of the article were achieved by using the survey questionnaire research tool. The conclusions of the article can provide important guidance to management practitioners, giving an insight into the situation of mobbing depending on the size of the organization.

Analysis of the Motives of Indian Collector’s for Accumulating Collectibles

Anshul Kaushik, Dr. Ramandeep Kaur

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 176-196
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.012

People across the globe collect numerous items ranging from stamps, stones, letter, coins, banknotes, paintings, photographs, cultural artifacts to vintage artworks. Collection might refer to some type of assortment with which the collector has an emotional connect. Money or profit in exact business term might not even be a factor to consider for a true collector. This is the feeling or the delight of owning the items which underline the true essence of collection. Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the trade of collectible items especially in antique items resulting in generation of revenue for the nations. This has led to the emergence of another set of people who collect items for profit and investment around the globe, known as professional collectors. India, being no exception is also seeing its share of surge in international trade in collectibles


Baykhonov Bahodirjon Tursunbaevich; Abdulhakimov Zuhrali Tursunalievich; Khalilov Nurillo Khamidullaevich; Colieva Gulbaxor Ahmadjanovna

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 197-207
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.013

This article shows the ways to maintain the pace of development of the country's
economy in emergencies, taking into account the effects of globalization, the study of the
country's GDP in times of crisis, the study of the country's economic potential under the
influence of specific factors. is carried out with. These include tax reform aimed at liberalizing
the foreign exchange market, increasing incomes and stimulating production, the gradual
transition to medium-term budget planning, reducing the role of inflation targeting in the
economy, the gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and the introduction of market
mechanisms. information on reforms.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 208-220
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.014

Insurance is the mechanism of risk sifting, a financial tool specially created to reduce
the finance, impact of unexpected events that happens in every life. Wealth is an
important factor of human resource development and good health is real wealth of
society, the health is the state of being free from illness or injury. World Health
Organization (WHO), defines it as a "State of complete physical, mental, and social
well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Health is a dynamic
condition resulting from a body's constant adjustment and adaptation in response to
stresses and changes in the environment for maintaining an inner equilibrium called
homeostasis. This paper mainly focuses on the single women, stay-at-home mothers,
married women, working women all of whom should have adequate insurance cover. It
is the need of the hour, as it helps to safeguard their health, save money, and create a
shield of protection. Women need more medical intervention than men because they
require reproductive care and they tend to fall ill more often.

The Consumer’s pro environmental attitude and its impact on green purchase behavior

Neelam Sheraz, Saima Saleem , Shahbaz sultan

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 221-233
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.015

This paper aims to analyze the consumer’s pro environmental behavior and attitude about
ecological products. The aim of this study is to analyze the consumer purchase intention and
ecological behavior towards the green items. In this study the researcher has thoroughly
examined the consumers personal norms that how a consumer react about the environment
friendly products. Governments and other companies, as significant financial institutions have
started to give a guarantee towards natural assurance by changing production strategies, produce
green items, and modifying ecological security arrangements. This paper analyzed the
environment friendly products purchase intention is safe for an environment; the customers
would have been environment concern and environmental attitude. This study has investigated
the customer’s pro-environmental attitude, personal norms, social norms and less damaging the
environment products purchase intention, which are less harm for the earth, impact on
environment friendly product behavior.
The data were collected from the 403 individuals, males and females who lived in Rawalpindi
and Islamabad through survey questionnaires. The usable questionnaires were 403 as
convenience sampling techniques was used which were used for the purpose of data analysis.
Researcher has chosen the Cross-sectional study. The data was analyzed through SPSS in which
data was measure its frequency, variance, linear regression, the descriptive statistics of the
dependent and independent variables, and mediator variables with independent and dependent
variables. Results indicate that relationship result the relationships of social norms with green
purchase behavior, personal norms with green purchase behavior and pro-environmental attitude
with green purchase behavior were found significant
This study developed a deeper understanding of the impact of independent variables personal
norms, social norms and pro environmental behavior of customers with the mediating effect of
green purchase intention on green purchase behavior.

Too big to cheat? An empirical study of the impact of firm size on earnings management in Vietnam

Dr. Do Thi Van Trang, Dr. Tran Ngoc Mai

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 234-247
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.016

Earning management has been an ongoing problem throughout the world nowadays. Determinants of earning management and their impacts are still a controversial topic. This study therefore aims to measure the impact of firm size and sale growth volatility on the manipulation among corporations in Vietnam. Firm size is evidenced positively related to the misstatements, the larger the size is, the greater motivation they have with the earnings. Sale growth volatility, which has not been widely used before, is significantly associated with the earning management. Firms with unstable sales appear to engage in earning manipulation

Keep talented Employees onboard by Work Engagement: Dark behaviors (Blame Attributions, bullying and Turnover Intention) in Organization

Samrah Jamshaid; Dr. Najma I Malik, Dr. Mohsin Atta; Adnan Ali Haider, Saba Jamshad; Kamran Jamshed

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 248-265
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.017

Every organization has a dark side indeed and the present study aimed to explore dark side
behaviors in higher education institutes from the perspective of blame attribution, workplace
bullying, and turnover intention which needed to be recognized. These behaviors considered
being deviant behavior affects teachers both emotionally and physically. Current study aimed
to explore the concept of keeping intact the talented teacher through work engagement while
battling with dark behaviors. Study further analyzed the mediating role of work engagement
in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention among teachers of
HEIs. Quantitative research with the use of survey design and self-administered questionnaire
was conducted among upon a sample of purposively selected teachers from Higher Education
Institutes (HEIs) in Sargodha, Pakistan, was carried out during March to July 2019. Utrecht
Work Engagement Scale (Schaufeli, et al., 2002), Blame attribution scale (Gudjonsson &
Singh, 1989), Negative Act Questionnaire (Einarsen, Raknes & Helleosy, 1994), and
Turnover Intention scale (Mitchell, et al., 2001) were used to measure the constructs of study.
Regression analysis reveals work engagement was a significant predictor for blame
attribution, workplace bullying, and turnover intention. Findings also revealed that work
engagement was a key booster to keep talented employees on board while tackling workplace
bullying and turnover intention. Findings of the study were helpful for organizations to keep
their talented employees on board and for employees to cope with dark behaviors.

Banking Sector Development, Inflation and Economic Growth of Pakistan: The Nexus

Muhammad Awais, Sayed Fayaz Ahmad, Poonam Riaz, Muhammad Ibrahim

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 266-293
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.018

Study has been conducted to analyze the causal relation among banking sector development,
inflation and economic growth of Pakistan. Study undertake the yearly data from 1960 to 2018
where as data has been collected from world bank indicators. Banking sector development has
been analyzed with help of five different variables BRM, CLP, DCP, DCB and BSI where as
Inflation has been measure with help of inflation and economic development has been measure
with GDP growth in percentage. Intiallyunitroot test has been applied on as collected data is in
time series where GDP is found stationary at level I(0) and other avriables found stationary after
taking first difference I(1).Johansson co-intergration test has been applied to identify the
relationship between variables VECM granger causality test has been applied to identify the
direction of relationship between variables. Results shows thatBidirectional causality found
between INF and BRM while unidirectional causality found from GDP to INF, INF to GDP,
GDP to CLP, INF to BSI, CLP to INF and INF to DCB Study conclude that not all the variables
are integrated with eachother only few of selected variables of banking sectors have relation with
GDP and INF.

Barriers in Implementing TQM in Secondary Schools: A comparison between privately-owned and government-owned schools of Pakistan

Abdullah Aziz , M. Jafar Hussain, , SayedFayaz Ahmad, AbidHussain Nadeem, Muhammad Ibrahim, Abdul Qayyum, Sana Amjad

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 294-307
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.019

Quality in education is essential in the overall development of a nation. In an
underdeveloped nation, such as Pakistan, the focus of quality is usually on primary or tertiary
education which overlookssecondary schooling. In this regard, theperceived causes of poor
implementation of total quality management in secondary schooling were studied. Faculties of
both public and private schools were surveyed with respect to six different barriers that are
responsible for lack of quality in the education sector. Each analyzed barrier pointed out the
extent of the educational quality. It also highlights the similarity in educational qualitydoes not
depend upon the ownership of the school. Reasons for poor perception of quality management
systems in the education sector are also discussed along with recommendations against each


G.Sh. Xonkeldieva .; Gulyorahon Bakhtiyarovna Shanazarova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 308-320
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.020

The article discusses the improvement of organizational and economic control mechanisms of the service sector while stimulating digital changes in the economy of Uzbekistan. It also pays attention to a number of areas of modernization services and analyzes all aspects of the research process that has made significant progress in this area in recent years

Identifying Dimensions of hospital cost management in Iranusing structural equation modeling

Mahsa Ghaziasgar, Shaghayegh Vahdat, Somayeh Hessam, IravanMasoudi asl, HoseinMoshiriTabrizi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 321-328
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.021

Aim: Hospitals as the most important providers of healthcare services around the world, are
facing a wide range of duty and cost of services. This article aimed to identifying the key
dimensions affecting in the cost management of Iran hospitals.
Methods: This descriptive study was performed in two qualitative and quantitative stages. First
factors influencing hospital cost management were extracted through literature and interview
with 20 experts in the field of hospital governance and proposed model was designed. Then a
questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 207 experts in the staff-and-line sector
of Tehran University of medical sciences. The research model was analyzed using exploratory
and confirmatory factor analysis in SPSS22 and Lisrel software.
Results: Five dimensions influencing hospital cost management were identified. Human
resource management and consumption resource management with factor of 0.88 and 0.71 had
the most and least significant efforts on hospital cost management.
Conclusions:This finding revealed that, for optimal hospital cost management, while considering
all five factors, human resource management should be emphasized

The Role of CEO Leadership and Project Management for Innovation Success in IT Sector of Pakistan: A Moderating Effect Of Human Capital

Hassan Daud Butt, Urooj Aijaz, Sofia Bano, Dr.Asif Shamim, Anum Hayat, Marium Mazhar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 329-348
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.022

The purpose is to examine the effect of CEO transformational leadership, and project
management best practices on innovation success with the moderating effect of human capital
in IT firms of Pakistan. Using purposive sampling technique, 306 responses have been
collected from the IT professionals of Karachi, Pakistan while PLS-SEM has been employed
for analysis. The results have shown that CEO transformational leadership and technical
aspects of project management best practices have positive effect on innovation success of IT
firms while people aspects of project management best practices have no effect on innovation
success of IT firms. However, human capital does not moderate the effect of CEO
transformational leadership and project management best practices on IT firms’ innovation
success in Pakistan. Hence, the study has suggestedthat the correct choice of tools and
procedures leads to innovation, PMBP can also be used strategically by organizations. It will
streamline management actions for the progress of innovation, as well as build invaluable
tools for the preparation, implementation, monitoring and assessment of innovative
workflows, develop improved connectivity and efficient coordination with clients

Critical Analysis of Blue Ocean Principles to Maximize the Business Opportunity and Minimize the Risk for the Success of Uber E-Taxi

Dr.K.Jawahar Rani, Dr. R.S Lekshmi, A. Priya Jenifer, V. Santhya

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 350-372
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.023

A strong framework for seeking potential business opportunities is the
Blue Ocean Strategy. This paper explains the concepts of the blue ocean
strategy, principle and risk associated with Uber and how Uber breaks
down conventional strategic competitive thinking and uses strategic
concepts of the blue ocean to increase demand and benefit for the
company. The four principles are how to establish uncontested market
space by restoring market boundaries, concentrating on the big picture,
reaching new market spaces beyond current demand and supply, and
having the strategic sequence right. Uber discovered the untapped e-taxi
market, which had enough opportunities for rapid growth and
profitability, and this initiative made it possible for them to identify
their larger, deeper potential e-taxi market in its strategic formulation,
which was not explored.


Madiha Kamal, Urooj Aijaz, Dr. Hina Shafiq, Naila Mushtaq, Khalid Khan, Fawad Rauf, Humza Qureshi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 373-402
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.024

By the year 2025 over half of the global growth will be contributed by 577 “middle weight” cities in the top 600 and the vast majority of them will be in emerging economies, and two-thirds from Chinese and Indian cities. Accordingly, “Urbanization and economic growth are strongly associated, hence, urban areas, in general, and cities, in particular, have been identified as the “Engine of Growth”, and “Agent of Change” (Mohan and Das Gupta, 2005). Cities evolve multiplicity of opportunities that allow individuals and communities to come together and exercise multifarious activities. The concept of “creative-cities” is rapidly attracting the interest of academician and policy makers. By 2020, over 60 percent of the China’s population will be  living in cities. It is estimated, that, by 2050, about 67 percent of the world’s population will be city dwellers (6.3 billion people). This would be 8.3 billion people by the early 22nd century. Cities produce over 80 percent of the world’s GDP and, 60 percent of the world’s GDP is being generated by top 600 cities with 25 percent of the world’s population. Such high economic density reflects the vital role of cities as the main source of productivity. There has been no systematic research exists in the country to identify the relative importance of the “Key drivers of city competitiveness. Present endeavor, for the first in Pakistan, an exploration in this direction.



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 403-409
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.025

Consumer perception plays a major role in buying behaviour. Studies show that India has
more rural user internet than urban uses. Hence there is huge space for e-commerce
business in rural area. The aim of the study is to understand the perception of rural
consumer of digital market in karamadai -Coimbatore district. To analysis this study we
have used multipliable regression technic. The result comprises of factors that encourage
and discourage the rural consumers to use online shopping, we have also given few

Ratiocination over Deliberations in the Fiction of Trio- Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal with special velleity towards relational complexity and ethnocentric intricacy

Dr. Jaya Sharma

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 410-418
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.026

This paper attempts to analyze how the trio Anita Desai, Ruth Prawar Jhabvala and Nergis Dalal
etch fragile human relationship in the wake of contemporary maladies creeping in the society.
Attenuated emotional bonds, urge for more space, patriarchal subjugation, rifts in understanding
eclipse conjugal harmony and nuptial relations. The trio has chosen to give voice to entangled
man-woman relations, incompatibility in marriages, cultural ethnocentrism resulting in marital
disharmony, alienation, estrangement, East-west Encounter, Identity Crisis, Familial nuances,
Pseudo modernism in Indian society, social life and marital dissonance and feministic seclusion.
Draught of female manifestations in Indian English Literature culminates with the foray of Anita
Desai, Ruth Jhabwala, Kamla Markandey, Sudha Murthy, Jhumpa Lahiri, Chitra Bannerjee,
Kiran Desai, Nergis Dalal etc. who dribbled it with the clear stream of their expressions. The
initiation of female authors enlarged the dimension by giving voice to untold miseries, unheard
experiences and unwritten encounters. Disparate streams of the works of the three contemporary
writers Nergis Dalal, Anita Desai and Ruth Jhabwala sometimes sparkle with the streak of same
themes manifested in different style

Design and Analysis of ZSI based DVR for Improving the Voltage profile


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 419-429
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.027

The principle objective of this task is to protect sensitive weights from voltage droops or expands with Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) utilizing VSI and ZSI. The Z-source inverters which have been actually proposed as an elective force change thought crushes the sensible and speculative obstacles and limitations of the standard voltage-source converter and current-source converter and gives a novel force change thought. Here the assessment is made between the display of DVR using VSI and ZSI. The sinusoidal condition of the yield voltage paying little notice to the load type is kept up by this voltage control system.

Does Exchange Rate Regime, Political Stability, and Capital Controls Influence the Currency Crisis

Zia U llah; Tan Xiao Fen; Fayaz Husain Tunio; Imran U llah

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 430-451
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.028

This study used the probit models to examine the relationship between exchange rate regime,
political stability, and capital controls on currency crises. Dataset is based on 1996 to 2020 over
the currency crisis episodes in 23 high-income countries and 25 middle-income countries, and
the total observation annually is 1200. Recent empirical studies have mixed results and argue
that the relationship is expectedto depend on capital controls and political stability both with the
exchange rate. The analysis providesimpressive results for fixed exchange rate and capital
controls are negatively associated with crisis,significantly less stable governments. The results
strongly support that floating exchange rate and (open) economies are negatively associated with
crises and lower the risk of crisis, remarkably more stable political governments. (Open)
economies and floating exchange rates are positively associated with a currency crisis and more
prone to a currency crisis, exceptionally less stable political governments.


Hoang Xuan Binh, Khamkeo Manivong, Hoang Thi Hoa

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 452-469
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.029

The objective of this study is to examine the spillover effects of foreign direct
investment (FDI) on domestic firms in Savannakhet province, Laos. The author uses the fixed
effects model (FEM) and the random effect model (REM) with the help of Eviews software and
Hausman test to analyze the spillover effects of FDI on domestic firms. in Savannakhet province
in the period 2013-2018. Table I-O 2018 is used to structure the relationship between domestic
firms and FDI enterprises through the horizontal and vertical spillover effect of FDI on domestic
firms. With the data set of sectors from 2013 to 2018, the author estimated the impact of FDI on
production and business activities of FDI enterprises. The result of this study is that there is
empirical evidence of the effect of the spillover effect of FDI on domestic firms in Savannakhet



Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 470-491
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.030

Around 20 ambulance services operated in Karachi; however, the network of Edhi, Chhipa
and Aman ambulance services provides the bulk of patient transport. The study aims to
compare the quality of ambulance service delivery with international standards. With a mixmethod
approach, 357 patients/attendants and key stakeholders participated in the study. The
results revealed a wide range of differences in service quality. Aman services delivery quality
is rated 72% compliant, but it constitutes less than 20% of the share of inpatient
transportation due to limited ambulances while Edhi and Chhipa contribute 80% of patient
transportation, but their service delivery quality is rated only 13%. In the subset of
monitoring, infection control, and medicine, Edhi & Chhipa services meet 0% standards. The
thematic analysis revealed that the primary reasons for the poor quality are lack of legislation
& minimum standards, Poor or no monitoring, financial constraints, and lack of awareness. In
conclusion, the ambulances services operating in the city lacks minimum service quality
standards, thus pose a constant threat to patient life using these services.

Application of Reciprocal Law in Returning Assets Resulting from Corruption

Helex Wirawan, Ismet Ismet

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 492-516
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.031

One of the unresolved legal issues in Indonesia is corruption. The problem of law enforcement is not yet optimal so that the assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption which are often more than national territory make it difficult to return. Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, abbreviated as MLA, which is expected to help law enforcement is not yet optimal. Indonesia, as a participant country of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC), does not yet have a regulatory framework that comprehensively regulates the aspects recommended by the convention. This study aims to find out about efforts and mechanisms to optimize the role of MLA in the recovery of assets resulting from criminal acts of corruption in Indonesia, especially those abroad. This research is normative juridical research conducted by library research and interviews with informants related to the legislation and comparison approach. This article concludes that optimizing the role of MLA requires several steps such as implementing MLA in a more detailed technical format, optimizing the role of law enforcementas the implementer, and adopting the concept of Non-Conviction Based Asset Forfeiture (NCB).


V.N. Abdullabekova, N.A. Abdullabekova

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 517-525
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.032

The article presents the results of identification of volatile substances, as well as macro and microelement composition of fruits "Sophorajaponica L.", cultivated in Tashkent using the method of chromatomass spectroscopy on an Agilent 7890 AGS gas chromatograph, as well as mass spectral analysis using a mass spectrometer inductively coupled plasma ICP MS (inductivelycoupledplasmamass-spectrometerAgilentTechnology 7500). As a result of the studies carried out in the fruits of Sophorajaponica L., the content of α-pinene (in hexane - 26.67%, in benzene - 12.93%), eucalyptol (in hexane - 17.23%, in benzene - 9.45%) and camphor (in hexane - 4.5%, in benzene - 2.49%), and the most significant macro- and microelements were found, among which potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, manganese, iron predominate in quantitative terms, chrome, copper and zinc.

Impact of electronic marketingtools, and electronic word of mouth on online purchase intention: empirical study on university Students in Tabuk

Hebatalla Mohsen Mohammed Abd el baki

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 526-568
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.033

This paper aims to study impactof electronic marketing tools, and electronic word of
mouth on online purchase intention: empirical study on university Students in Tabuk, and
also aim to study the different tools of Electronic marketing. The objective of this study is
To examine the impact of E M tools on online purchase intention, the study aims to
examine the impact of E W O M on online purchase intention, andto find out what is the
most effective tool of E M impact on online purchase intention.The study was conducted
in University of Tabuk in Saudi Arabia , the research hypotheses was adopted based on
the previous studies, and Based on variables of the study . The researcher used the
descriptive analytical method; The Data was collected through Field research
(questionnaire) among 120 respondents. The results show there was a positive
correlation between electronic marketing tools and online purchase intention among
university students. This study recommends that companies should move away from
conventional marketing techniques and inculcate electronic marketing into their marketing
plans in order to better stay connected with customer

Circular economic development in Vietnam


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 569-576
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.034

In Vietnam, economic activity has so far been mainly based on the traditional approach,
which is linear economy. This is also the basic cause leading to the shortage of natural resources and
especially causing serious environmental pollution. In order to realize rapid and sustainable
development, to harmoniously deal with the relationship between economic growth and environmental
protection, to "do not trade off" economic growth with environmental pollution and degradation, to
switch to an eco-friendly economy. circular economy is the right direction. However, this
transformation requires seizing the opportunities and accepting the challenges that need to be overcome.
The article analyzes opportunities and challenges of circular economy development and proposes
solutions to promote circular economy development for Vietnam in the coming time.

A literature Investigation on Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Teaching and Wisdom


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 577-584
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.035

The COVID-19 pandemic has made the biggest disturbance of schooling frameworks in
mankind's set of experiences, influencing almost 1.6 billion students in excess of 200 nations.
Terminations of schools, foundations and other learning spaces have affected over 94% of the
world's understudy populace. This has brought expansive changes in all parts of our lives. Social
separating and prohibitive development strategies have fundamentally upset customary
instructive practices. Resuming of schools after unwinding of limitation is another test with
numerous new standard working strategies set up.
Inside a limited ability to focus the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous scientists have shared their
deals with instructing and learning in an unexpected way. A few schools, schools and colleges
have stopped eye to eye lessons. There is a dread of losing 2020 scholastic year or considerably
more in the coming future. The need of great importance is to enhance and execute elective
instructive framework and evaluation procedures. The COVID-19 pandemic has given us a
chance to make ready for presenting computerized learning. This article intends to give a far
reaching report on the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on web based educating and learning of
different papers and show the route forward.

The Effects of verbal and nonverbal Ostracism on employee interpersonal work behavior

Muhammad Irshad, Dr. Muhammad Arif, Dr. Munir Hussain

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 585-600
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.036

Employee interpersonal behaviors play a vital role in the performance of any organization. If this
behavior of the employee is positive it will boost up the performance of the organization
otherwise it will completely lower the performance of the organization. The behavior of the
employee is mainly affected by the behavior of other employees who are working with them.
When a person or group of people fails to engage another organizational member when it is
socially necessary to do so, it is referred to as workplace ostracism. There are two main
dimensions of workplace ostracism which are verbal and nonverbal ostracism. The purpose of
this study is to investigate the effect of verbal and nonverbal ostracism on employee
interpersonal deviance behavior in the public sector organizations of Balochistan. This study also
aims to examine the moderating role of social self-efficacy on the relationship between verbal
and verbal ostracism and inter-personal deviance behavior. The nature of this study is
quantitative so used the deductive approach. Primary data was collected by a closed-ended
questionnaire from the 103 permanent employees of the public sector organization of
Balochistan who speak a mother tongue other than the local language of that area. The data
analysis technique was PLS-SEM done by the PLS Smart. From the results of this study it was
found that both verbal and nonverbal ostracism will create a Disidentification in the employee
which leads them to interpersonal deviance behavior.

CPEC and Capacity of Banking Sector

Madiha Kamal Hina Shafiq Dr.Muhammad Asif Shamim Dr. Sanam Wagma Khattak Naila Mushtaq Khalid Khan Kumail Asghar

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 601-618
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.037

China-Pakistan economic corridor is the potential project that enhances local connectivity,
industrialization, financial cooperation, trade and commerce, infrastructure, tourism, the
solidity of the region and so on and so forth. It is beneficial for not only Pakistan and China
but will have the constructive impact on Afghanistan, Iran, India and the linked region. On
one hand CPEC is opening great opportunities for Pakistan to flourish their business,
industries, and trade, but on the other hand, it is also a challenge for Pakistan in many aspects
of law and order situation, regional conflicts, local financing and capacity of the banking
sector. In this report, the capacity of the banking sector of Pakistan is deeply analyzed with
the stances of different banks on CPEC and what role State Bank is playing in this venture.
Further, this report critically analyzes the problems banking sector is currently facing and
what measure they can take to overcome issues and invest in CPEC projects actively

An Assessment of Training and Its Effectiveness on Employees’ Job Performance”: A Critical Review on The Banking Sector of Ethiopia


Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 619-626
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.038

With the current expansion of the global economy and the fast-changing of technology and innovation, Effectiveness Training is necessary for any organization especially in connection with new technology.  The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of training on employees’ job performance in Hawassa City, in order to examine the study data was collected through a self-administered structured questionnaire from a population of 195 employees from various branches of the Banking sector in Hawassa city.  The data collected was analyzed using frequency, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and regression analysis. Regression results indicate that effectiveness training it positively and significantly contributes towards employees’ job performance.  Based on the finding of the study the researcher forwarded some recommendations the management of the CBE.


Adnan Ahmed , Dr Muhammed Arif

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 627-643
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.039

This study identifies critical factors which have influence employee retention in the fastfoodpolicies
in these organizations to retain staff at the floor level.Overall, the results give a
fresh insight into the topic of retention industry. It adds to research studies on similar topics by
exploring critical factors which have not been a regular part of the research, such as supervisor
support and job security. Instead of taking employee turnover intention, this study takes a more
direct approach by using the retention of employees as a dependent variable. The study confirms
through quantitative analysis that three independent variables – Job Satisfaction, Brand Image,
and Job Security have a significant impact on employee retention. In an unusual result, two other
independent variables – Career Development and Supervisor Support have been found to have an
insignificant impact on the employee retention in the fast-food industry. These results have been
validated through online interviews with an Industry Specialist and a Food Researcher.Based on
this study, it is recommended that Operations staff should have their jobs enriched with regular
transfers to other areas like Finance, Marketing, and Purchasing. There is also an urgent need to
reenergize the motivational levelof employees in the fast-food industry in Pakistan.

Impacts of the Free Trade Agreement on Pakistan Export to China and Economic Growth

Khalid Rahamdil; LIU Chunsheng; Faryal Salman;Fayaz Hussain Tunio, Naveed Khan; Agha Amad Nabi

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 644-662
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.040

The Free Trade Agreements between Pakistan and China increased the trade prospects
between Pakistan China, resulting in an increased trade deficit in Pakistan with China. The
study is based onhow the FTAs impact exports in Pakistan. This paper's results suggest a
positive contribution of FTAs to Pakistan's exports in China's economy and the imports from
China. However, the increase in imports is much higher than the increase in exports after
Pakistan entered into subsequent FTAs with China. As a result, there is an increase in the
Pakistan trade deficit, and the growth prospects of Pakistan suffered. The constant
marketsuggests that,by focusing on products that enhance
Pakistan'scomparativeadvantage,improving infrastructure, efficient tariff line utilization, and
deep understanding of China's market, all are necessary for Pakistan to benefit from FTAs;
otherwise, their provision becomes counterproductive. It is concluded that Pakistan needs to
reduce the trade deficit with China as it negatively impacts its macroeconomic situation.
Exports enhanced by investing in innovative technologies andreduced importsthrough
production inland.

Environmental analysis and its role in the success of the " organization " An analytical exploratory study in the Directorate of Water Resources / Babylon

Prof. Dr Nayef Ali Assi, Hameed Jassem

Journal of Contemporary Issues in Business and Government, 2021, Volume 27, Issue 5, Pages 663-674
DOI: 10.47750/cibg.2021.27.05.041

The research aims to know the role of environmental analysis by its dimensions (analysis of the
internal environment, analysis of the external environment) in the success of the organization by its
dimensions (efficiency of operations, attention to the customer, possession of resources, good
management). The questionnaire was used as a method for collecting data, and a random sample of
(50) individuals was chosen from the Water Resources Directorate / Babil. The research was based
on two measures that were developed by the researcher based on the research literature and the
nature and environment of the research and were subjected to validity and reliability tests. For the
purpose of achieving the research objectives, the research was formulated. Two main hypotheses
were tested by several statistical means using the ready-made statistical program (SPSS Var 22).
The research concluded that there is an important impact of environmental analysis on the success
of the organization.